Books (peer-reviewed)

Ecosystem-based managment for the oceans book

McLeod, K. L. and H. M. Leslie (editors). 2009. Ecosystem-Based Management for the Oceans. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Peer-reviewed Articles & Book Chapters

Frawley, T. H., B. González-Mon, M. Nenadovic, F. Gladstone, K. Nomura, J. A. Zepeda Domínguez, S. Rodriguez-Van Dyck, E. M. Ferrer, J. Torre, F. Micheli, H. M. Leslie, X. Basurto. 2024. Self-governance structures mediate small-scale fishery operations, vulnerability, and adaptive response. Global Environmental Change 84:102805,

Haugen, J.B., Link, J.S., and 28 more, including, H. M. Leslie. 2024. Marine ecosystem-based management: challenges remain, yet solutions exist, and progress is occurring. npj Ocean Sustain 3 (7):

Risley, S. C., K. E. Pellowe, M. L. Britsch, M. M. White, H. M. Leslie. 2023. Community science in support of ecosystem-based management: A case study from the Damariscotta River Estuary, Maine, USA. Maine Policy Review 32.2: 221-230,

Leslie, H. M., M. L. Britsch, M. Cucuzza, K. E. Pellowe, S. Risley, J. S. Stoll. 2023. Managing for resilience of estuarine & coastal marine environments to climate change. Ch. 30, Climate Change & Estuaries. M. Kennish, H. Paerl, J. Croswell (eds). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. pp. 603-18.

Sullivan-Stack, J. O. Aburto-Oropeza, C. Brooks, R. B. Cabral, J. Caselle, F. Chan, J. E. Duffy, D. C. Dunn, A. M. Friedlander, H. K. Fulton-Bennett, S. D. Gaines, L. R. Gerber, E. Hines, H. M. Leslie, S. E. Lester, J. M. C. MacCarthy, S. M. Maxwell, J. Mayorga, D. McCauley, F. Micheli, R. Moffitt, K. J. Nickols, S. R. Palumbi, D. R. Pearsall, E. P. Pike, E. K. Pikitch, G. Sancho, A. K. Spalding, D. O. Suman, S. Sykora-Bodie, K. Grorud-Colvert. Scientific Synthesis of Marine Protected Areas in the United States: Status and Recommendations. 2022. Frontiers in Marine Science 9:

McGreavy, B., K. Haynal, J. Smith-Mayo,  J. Reilly-Moman, M. T. Kinnison, D. Ranco, H. M. Leslie. 2022.  How does strategic communication shape  transdisciplinary collaboration? A focus on definitions, audience, expertise, and ethical praxis. Frontiers in Communication.

Britsch, M., H. M. Leslie, and J. Stoll. 2021. Diverse perspectives on marine aquaculture in Maine. Marine Policy 131:104697.

Cucuzza, M., J. Stoll and H. M Leslie. 2021. Evaluating the theoretical and practical linkages between ecosystem-based fisheries management and fisheries co-management. Marine Policy 126:104390.

Pellowe, K.E. & H. M. Leslie. 2020c. Ecosystem service lens reveals diverse community values of small-scale fisheries. Ambio 50(3): 586-600.

Hillebrand H, U. Jacob, and H. M. Leslie. 2020. Integrative research perspectives on marine conservation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 375: 20190444.

Pellowe, K.E. & H. M. Leslie. 2020b. The interplay between formal and informal institutions and the potential for co-management in a Mexican small-scale fishery. Marine Policy 121: 104179.

Pellowe, K. E. and H. M. Leslie. 2020a. Size‐selective fishing leads to trade‐offs between fishery productivity and reproductive capacity. Ecosphere 11(3):

Cucuzza, M., J.S. Stoll, and H. M. Leslie. 2019. Comprehensive plans as tools for enhancing coastal community resilience. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. 63(11): 2022-2041.

Pellowe, K. E. and H. M. Leslie. 2019. Heterogeneity among clam harvesters in northwest Mexico shapes individual adaptive capacity. Ecology & Society 24(4):25.

Leslie, H.M., M. Ruckelshaus, and J.D. Witman. 2019. Introduction to the special issue on PISCO: Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans. Oceanography 32(3):12–15,

Stoll, J., H. M. Leslie, M. Britsch, C. Cleaver. 2019. Aquaculture and the cultivation of a new crop of marine resource users in Maine’s seafood economy. Marine Policy 107:

Leslie, H. M. 2018. Value of ecosystem-based management. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Álvarez-Romero, J. G, M. Mills, V. M. Adams, G. G. Gurney, R. L. Pressey, R. Weeks, N. C. Ban, J. Cheok, T. E. Davies, J. C. Day, M A. Hamel, H. M. Leslie, and R. A. Magris. 2018. Research advances and gaps in marine planning: towards a global database in systematic conservation planning Biological Conservation, doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2018.06.027

Aburto-Oropeza, O. et al., including HML and many others. 2018. Harnessing cross-border resources to confront climate change. Environmental Science and Policy

Leslie, H. M.  2017. Principles for Interdisciplinary Conservation. Chapter 6 in Levin, P. S. and M. R. Poe, eds. Conservation for the Anthropocene Ocean. Elsevier. pp. 109-122.

Pellowe, K. E. and H. M. Leslie. 2017. Seasonal variability shapes resilience of small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico. PLoS ONE 12(8):e0182200.

Hughes, A. R., J. H. Grabowski, H. M. Leslie, S. Schyphers, S. L. Williams.  2017. Inclusion of biodiversity in habitat restoration policy to facilitate ecosystem recovery. Conservation Letters, 10.1111/conl.12419

Menge, B. A., M. Bracken, J. Lubchenco, and H. M. Leslie. 2017. Alternative state? Experimentally-induced Fucus canopy persists 38 years in an Ascophyllum-dominated community. Ecosphere, doi: 10.1002/ecs2.1725.

Crosby, S. C., A. Angermeyer, J. M. Adler, M. D. Bertness, L. A. Deegan, N. Sibinga, and H. M. Leslie. 2016. Spartina alterniflora biomass allocation and temperature: implications for salt marsh persistence with sea-level rise. Estuaries and Coasts, doi:10.1007/s12237-016-0142-9.

Crosby, S. C., D. Sax., M. E. Palmer. H. S. Booth, L. A. Deegan, M. D. Bertness, and H. M Leslie. 2016. Salt marsh persistence is threatened by predicted sea level rise. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 181:93-99.

Baker, H.K., J. A. Nelson, H. M. Leslie. 2016. Quantifying striped bass (Morone saxatilis) dependence on salt marsh derived productivity used stable isotope analysis. Estuaries and Coasts, online 4.5.16.

Aburto, O., H. M. Leslie, A. Mack-Crane, S. Nagavarapu, S. M.W. Reddy, and L. Sievanen. 2016. Property rights for fishing cooperatives: how (and how well) do they work? World Bank Economic Review, published online 3.16.

Leslie, H. M., L. Sievanen, T. Gancos Crawford, R. Gruby, H. C. Villanueva-Aznar, and L. M. Campbell. 2015. Learning from ecosystem-based management in practice. Coastal Management, published online 10.14.15. 

Leslie, H. M., X. Basurto, M. Nenadovic, L. Sievanen,, K. C. Cavanaugh, J. J. Cota-Nieto, B. Erisman, E. Finkbeiner, G. Hinojosa-Arango, M. Moreno-Báez, S. Nagavarapu, S. M. W. Reddy, A. Sánchez-Rodríguez, K. Siegel, J. J. Ulibarria-Valenzuela, A. H. Weaver, O. Aburto-Oropeza. 2015. Operationalizing the social-ecological systems framework to assess sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112: 5979–5984.

Crosby, S. C., M. Ivens-Duran, M. D. Bertness, E. Davy, L. A. Deegan, and H. M. Leslie. 2015. Flowering and biomass allocation in U.S. Atlantic coast Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae)American Journal of Botany, doi:10.3732/ajb.1400534.

Leslie, H. M. and M. Palmer. 2015. Examining the impacts of tidal energy capture from an ecosystem services perspective. Marine Technology Society Journal 49(1):97-114. Please email heather.leslie(at) for more information.

Cockrell, M. L., J. R. Bernhardt, and H. M. Leslie. 2015. Recruitment, abundance, and predation on the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) on northeastern estuarine rocky shores. Ecosphere 6(1):18.

Tallis, H. and 239 co-authors, including H. M. Leslie. 2014. The call for inclusive conservation. Nature 515:27-28.

Sievanen, L. 2014. How do small-scale fishers adapt to environmental variability? Lessons from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Maritime Studies 13:9. {Leslie advised Sievanen and led the project to which this work contributed}

Lamb, E, H. M. Leslie, and J Shinen. 2014. Both like it hot? Influence of aerial temperature on two co-occurring intertidal barnacles in central Chile.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 453: 54–61.

Barbier, E., H. M. Leslie, and F. Micheli. 2013. Services of Marine Ecosystems: A Quantitative Perspective. Ch 18 in M. D. Bertness, J. Bruno, B. Silliman and J. Stachowicz, eds. Marine Community Ecology and Conservation, Sinauer Associates, Inc. 26 pp.

Leslie, H. M., E. Goldman, K. M. McLeod, L. Sievanen, H. Balasubramanian, R. Cudney-Bueno, A. Feurerstein, N. Knowlton, K. Lee, R. Pollnac, and J. F. Samhouri. 2013. How good science and stories can go hand?in?hand. Conservation Biology 27: 1126-1129DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12080

Reddy, S. M. W., A.Wentz, O. Aburto-Oropeza, M.  Maxey, S. Nagavarapu, and H. M. Leslie. 2013. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors. Ecological Applications 23(4):726-741.

Bernhardt, J. R. and H. M. Leslie. 2013. Resilience to climate change in coastal marine ecosystems. Annual Review of Marine Science 5.371-392. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-marine-121211-172411.

Sievanen, L., R. L. Gruby, and L. M. Campbell. 2013. Fixing Marine Governance in Fiji? The New Scalar Narrative of Ecosystem-Based Management. Global Environmental Change 23:206-216.

Halpern, B. S., C. Longo, D. Hardy, K. L McLeod, J. F. Samhouri, S. K. Katona, K. Kleisner, S. E. Lester, J. O’Leary, M. Ranelletti, A. A. Rosenberg, C. Scarborough, E. R. Selig, B. D. Best, D. R. Brumbaugh, F. S. Chapin III, L. B. Crowder, K. L. Daly, S. C. Doney, C. Elfes, M. J. Fogarty, S. D. Gaines, K. I. Jacobsen, L. Bunce Karrer, H. M. Leslie and 8 others. 2012. An index to assess the health and benefits of the global ocean. Nature 488:615-620.

Sievanen, L., L.M. Campbell, and H.M. Leslie. 2012. Challenges to Interdisciplinary Research in Ecosystem-Based Management. Conservation Biology. 26(2): 315-323.

Hastings, J., R.L. Gruby, L. Sievanen. 2012. Science-based coastal management in Fiji: Two case studies from the NGO sector. Marine Policy. 36: 907-914.

Sievanen, L., H.M. Leslie, J.M. Wondolleck, S.L. Yaffee, K.L. McLeod and L.M. Campbell. 2011. Linking top-down and bottom-up processes through the new US National Ocean Policy. Conservation Letters. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2011.00178.x

Gedan, K.B., J. Bernhardt, M.D. Bertness, and H.M. Leslie. 2011. Substrate size mediates thermal stress in the rocky intertidal. Ecology 92:576–582. doi:10.1890/10-0717.1.

Leslie, H. M. and A. P Kinzig. 2009. Resilience Science. Chapter 4 In: Ecosystem-Based Management for the Oceans. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Leslie, H.M., M. Schlüter, R. Cudney-Bueno, and S. A. Levin. 2009. Modeling responses of the coupled social-ecological systems of the northern Gulf of California to anthropogenic and natural perturbations. Ecological Research 24(3); 505-514.

Schlüter, M., H. M. Leslie, and S. A. Levin. 2009. Managing water use tradeoffs in a semi-arid river delta to sustain multiple ecosystem services – a modeling approach. Ecological Research 24(3): 491-503.

Leslie, H.M., A. R. Rosenberg, J. Eagle. 2008. Is a new mandate needed for marine ecosystem-based management? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(1):43-48.

Leslie, H. M. and K. L. McLeod. 2007. Confronting the challenges of implementing marine ecosystem-based management. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 5(10):540-548.

Hughes, T. P., L. Gunderson, C. Folke, A. Baird, D. Bellwood, F. Berkes, B. Crona, A. Helfgott, H. Leslie, J. Norberg, M. Nyström, P. Olsson, H. Österblom, M.Scheffer, H. Schuttenberg, R.S. Steneck, M. Tengö, M. Troell, B. Walker, J. Wilson, B. Worm. 2007. Adaptive Management of the Great Barrier Reef and the Grand Canyon World Heritage Areas. Ambio 36:586-592.

Satake, A., H. M. Leslie, Y. Iwasa, and S. A. Levin. 2007. Coupled ecological-social dynamics in a forested landscape: spatial interactions and information flow. Journal of Theoretical Biology 246: 695-707.

Berkes, F., T. P. Hughes, R. S. Steneck, J. A. Wilson, D. R. Bellwood, B. Crona, C. Folke, L. H. Gunderson, H. M. Leslie, J. Norberg, M. Nyström, P. Olsson, H. Österblom, M. Scheffer, B. Worm. 2006. Globalization, roving bandits and marine resources. Science 311:1557-58.

Leslie, H. M. 2005a. A synthesis of marine conservation planning approaches. Cons. Biol. 19(6): 1701-1713.

Leslie, H. M., E. N. Breck, F. Chan, B. A. Menge, and J. Lubchenco. 2005. Barnacle reproductive hotspots linked to nearshore ocean conditions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102(30):10534-39.

Leslie, H. M. 2005b. Positive intraspecific effects trump negative effects in high-density barnacle aggregations. Ecology 86(10):2716-2725.

Giller, P., H. Hillebrand, U G. Berninger, M. Gessner, S. Hawkins, P. Inchausti, C. Inglis, H. Leslie, B. Malmqvist, M. Monaghan, P. Morin, G. O’Mullan. 2004. Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning: emerging issues and their experimental test in aquatic communities. Oikos 104(3): 423-436.

Leslie, H., M. Ruckelshaus, I. R. Ball, S. Andelman, and H. P. Possingham. 2003. Using siting algorithms in the design of marine reserve networks. Ecological Applications 13(1): S185-S198.

Airamé, S., J. E. Dugan, K. D. Lafferty, H. Leslie, D. A. McArdle, and R. R. Warner. 2003. Applying ecological criteria to marine reserve design: A case study from the California Channel Islands. Ecol. Appl. 13(1): S170-S184.

Menge, B. A., J. Lubchenco, M. E. S. Bracken, F. Chan, M. M. Foley, T. L. Freidenburg, S. D. Gaines, G. Hudson, C. Krenz, H. Leslie, D. N. L. Menge, R. Russell, and M. S. Webster. 2003. Coastal oceanography sets the pace of rocky intertidal community dynamics. PNAS 100(21):12229-12234.

Palumbi, S. R., S.D. Gaines, H. Leslie, and R. R. Warner. 2003. New wave: high-tech tools to help marine reserve research. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(2): 73-79.

Roberts, C. M., S .J. Andelman, G. M. Branch, R. Bustamante, J. C. Castilla, J. E. Dugan, B. Halpern, K. D. Lafferty, H. Leslie, J. Lubchenco, D. A. McArdle, H. P. Possingham, M. H. Ruckelshaus, and R. R. Warner. 2003a. Ecological criteria for evaluating candidate sites for marine reserves. Ecol. Appl. 13(1): S199-S214.

Roberts, C. M., G. Branch, R. H. Bustamante, J. C. Castilla, J. Dugan, B. Halpern, K. D. Lafferty, H. Leslie, J. Lubchenco, D. McArdle, M. Ruckelshaus, and R. R. Warner. 2003b. Application of ecological criteria in selecting marine reserves and developing reserve networks. Ecol. Appl. 13(1): S215-S228.

Select Popularly Oriented and Non-Refereed Publications

Leslie, H. M. 2023. What Gives Me Hope. Maine Policy Review 32.2:187,

Risley, S. C. and H. M. Leslie. 2023. Damariscotta River Estuary Community Science Project: 2019-2023. Summary presented to the Joint Shellfish Committee of Damariscotta and Newcastle on 11.14.23 by SR, UMaine Darling Marine Center, Walpole, Maine. 2 pp. 

Risley, S. C., McMahan, M., Papi, A., Rolfe, C., Leslie, H. M., & Stoll, J. S. 2022. Community Science in the Damariscotta River Estuary: An Educational Exploration of Shellfish Ecology & Harvester Local Knowledge (Handbook) and (Appendices). University of Maine Darling Marine Center.

Britsch, M. and H. M. Leslie. 2021. Damariscotta River: Research through Time. Storymap published July 2021.

Britsch, M. L., S. Risley, J. S. Stoll, and H. M. Leslie. 2021. State of the Damariscotta River Estuary Report: Local knowledge of trends in the shellfish resource & human activity in the Damariscotta River Estuary. Technical report prepared for Damariscotta-Newcastle Joint Shellfish Committee, UMaine Darling Marine Center, Walpole, Maine. 32 pp.

Britsch, M., S. Risley, J. Stoll, and H. M. Leslie. 2021. State of the Medomak River Estuary. Technical report prepared for the Town of Medomak by UMaine Darling Marine Center, Walpole, Maine. 28 pp.

Stoll, J., H. M. Leslie, M. Cucuzza. 2017. Integrating Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management and Co-Management. Report from a Workshop held at UMaine’s Darling Marine Center, Walpole, Maine. September 27-28, 2017.

Leslie, H. 2013. Ecosystem-Based Management: What We Need to Build on the Promise. Inaugural invited article for Science for Nature and People. Launched 9.25.13.

Leslie, H. M. 2010. Obama’s new ocean policy a boon for New Englanders. The Providence Journal. p. B8 (7/28/10).

Leslie, H. 2010. Integrating community-based learning and research into environmental science courses. The Teaching Exchange 15(2): 3.

McLeod, K. M. and H. Leslie. 2005. Marine Ecosystem-Based Management: Transforming U.S. Ocean Policy. In M. Groom et al. (eds.), Principles of Conservation Biology (3rd edition), pp. 476-479.

Simler, B., R. Davis-Born, A. Guerry, H. Leslie, and J. Lubchenco. 2002. The Catalogue of Oregon Marine and Coastal Information: Meta-data to inform area-based management. In Proceedings of 2002 Conference of The Coastal Society.

Leslie, H. 2001. Coastal Zone Management. In J. Barry and E. G. Frankland (eds.) International Encyclopedia of Environmental Politics. Florence, KY: Routledge. p. 94-95.

Leslie, H. 1999. It’s too soon to open just-recovering scallop beds. The Boston Globe, p. A17 (2/25/99).

Leslie, H. 1997. Coastal wetlands management in Yucatan, Mexico: Nature-based tourism in the Celestún Estuary. In M. C. Miller and J. Cogan (eds.) Coastal Zone 97 Conference Proceedings, Vol. 2., Boston, MA: 1997, pp. 938-940.

Leslie, H. 1994. Birds, buggies, and barrier beaches. Sanctuary. Lincoln, MA: Massachusetts Audubon Society. pp. 16-17.

Book Reviews

Leslie, H. M. 2011. Roadmap to Nature’s Benefits. Science 332: 1264-1265.

Leslie, H. 2008. Global Coastal Change. The Quarterly Review of Biol. 83(1):136-137.

Leslie, H. 2004. Coastal Marine Conservation: Science and Policy. The Quarterly Review of Biol. 79(4): 447.