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Animal and Veterinary Sciences

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Faculty and Staff - Martin Stokes

Maine Distinguished Professor of Animal and Veterinary Science

Undergraduate Program Coordinator
130A Hitchner Hall
Orono, ME 04469-5763
Phone: (207) 581-2770
Fax: (207) 581-2744






Research Interests
Research in silage production and utilization by dairy cattle including evaluation and production of silage additives, particularly enzyme additives.

Check out my web site on rumen microorganisms!


Books and Book Chapters:

Kung, Jr., L., M.R. Stokes, and C.J. Lin. 2003.  Silage Additives.  In Silage Science and Technology.  D.R. Buxton, R.E. Muck, and J.H. Harrison, eds.  Agronomy Series 42, American Society of Agronomy,Inc., Crop Science Society of America, Inc., and Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Publishers, Madison, WS.

Invited Review Articles:

Harrison, J.H., R. Blauwiekel, and M.R. Stokes.  1994. Fermentation and utilization of grass silage.  J. Dairy Sci., 77:3209-3235.

Refereed Journal Articles:

Clapperton, J.L., P.C. Thomas, M.R. Stokes, and J.M. Henderson. 1974. A Compact Machine for Feeding Sheep up to Twelve Times Daily.  Brit. J. Nutr. 31, 271.

Stokes, M.R., W.D. Steinhour, H.B. Puckett, and J.H. Clark. 1979.  Compact Machine for Feeding Cattle up to Twelve Times Daily.  J. Dairy Sci. 62, 1007.

Stokes, M.R., J.H. Clark, and L.M. Steinmetz.  1981. Per­formance of lactating dairy cows fed methionine or methionine analog at two concentrations of dietary crude protein.  J. Dairy Sci. 64, 1686-1694.

Steinhour, W.D., M.R. Stokes, J.H. Clark, J.A. Rogers, C.L. Davis, and D.R. Nelson.  1982.  Estimation of the proportion of non-ammonia nitrogen reaching the lower gut of the ruminant derived from bacterial and protozoal nitrogen.  Br. J. Nutr.  48:417.

MacGregor, C.A., M.R. Stokes, W.H. Hoover, H.A. Leonard, L.L. Junkins, Jr., C.J. Sniffen, and R.W. Mailman.  1983.  Effect of dietary level of total nonstructural carbo­hydrate on energy and nitrogen metabolism and milk production of dairy cows.  J. Dairy Sci.  66:39.

Stokes, M.R.  1983.  Effect of sodium bicarbonate on rumen turnover in frequently fed sheep.  Can. J. Anim. Sci.63:721-725.

Stokes, M.R., P.L. Schneider, and L.M. Steinmetz.  1983.  An inexpensive machine for frequent feeding of sheep housed in metabolism crates.  Can. J. Anim. Sci.  63:985-987.

Stokes, M.R., L.S. Bull, and W.A. Halteman.  1985.  Rumen liquid dilution rate in dairy cows fed once daily. Effects of diet and sodium bicarbonate supplementation.  J. Dairy Sci.  68:1171-1180.

Schneider, P.L., M.R. Stokes, L.S. Bull, and C.K. Walker.  1985. Evaluation of potato meal as a feedstuff for lactating dairy cows.  J. Dairy Sci.  60:1738-1743.

Cassida, K.A. and M.R. Stokes.  1986.  “Eating and resting salivation in early lactation dairy cows.”  Journal of Dairy Science.  69:1282-1292.

Stokes, M.R. and L.S. Bull.  1986.  “Effects of sodium bicarbonate with three ratios of hay crop silage to concentrate for dairy cows.”  J. Dairy Sci. 69:2671-2680.

Stokes, M.R., L.L. Vandemark and L.S. Bull.  1986.  “Effects of sodium bicarbonate, magnesium oxide, and a commercial buffer mixture in early lactation cows fed hay crop silage.” J. Dairy Sci.  69:1595-1603.

Stokes, M.R.  1987.  The effect of a commercial enzyme mixture on rumen degradation of grass-legume silage. Nutr. Reports Intl.  36:919-926.

Canale, C.J. and M.R. Stokes.  1988.  Sodium bicarbonate for early lactation cows fed corn silage or hay crop silage-based diets.  J. Dairy Sci.  71:373-380.

Stokes, M.R.  1992.  Effects of an enzyme mixture, an inoculant and their interaction on silage fermentation and dairy production.  J. Dairy Sci. 75:764-773.

Crawford, H.S., R.A. Lautenschlager, M.R. Stokes, and T.L. Stone.  1993.  Effects of forest disturbance and soil depth on digestible energy for moose and white-tailed deer.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Forest Experiment Station Research Paper NE-682, 13 p.

Chen, J., M.R. Stokes, and C.R. Wallace.  1994.  Effects of enzyme-inoculant systems on preservation and nutritive value of hay-crop and corn silages.  J. Dairy Sci. 77:501-512.

Stokes, M.R. and J. Chen.  1994.  Effects of an enzyme-inoculant mixture on the course of fermentation of corn silage.  J. Dairy Sci. 77:3401-3409.

Lautenschlager, R.A., H.S. Crawford, M.R. Stokes, and T.L. Stone.  1997.   Forest disturbance type differentially affects seasonal moose forage.  Alces. 33:49-73.

 Abstracts and Posters:

Zheng, S. and M.R. Stokes.  1997.  Effects of fibrolytic enzymes on feed stability and performance of lactating cows.  J. Dairy Sci. 80(Suppl. 1):278. (Abstr.)

Beno, L. L. and M. R. Stokes.  1998.  Enzyme-treated corn silage.

Effects of dry matter and compaction.  In Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of NEASA, NEADSA, NEASAS, and SSA, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. (Poster.)

Riesen, J. W., H. D. Hafs, G. K. McCone, P. A. Schoknecht, and M.R. Stokes.  2007.  Digital Image Gallery to Assist Learning Animal Sciences; Photos and Illustrations Solicited.  J. Anim.  Sci. 85 Suppl.1):177. (Abstr.)

 * As a result of the USDA Grant described in the above presentation, I, or my staff and student workers submitted 84 images with descriptions and metadata that were peer reviewed and accepted onto the Animal Science Image Gallery from 2003-2009.  This image gallery will be held at the National Agriculture Library in perpetuity.  

Clark, G.W.C., D. Marcinkowski, M. Stokes, G. Anderson and R. Kersbergen. 2008. Reducing Off-farm Grain Inputs on Northeast Organic Dairy Farms: An Evaluation of Alternative Forage Cropping and Concentrate Feeding Systems: Holstein Herd. Midwest Organic Research Symposium. Feb. 21-23, 2008, La Crosse, WI, Page 55.

 Miscellaneous Publications:

Stokes, M.R. 1995.  Enzyme feed additives for early lactation cows and growing heifers.  Witter Center Dairy Report, March 1995.

Jemison, J., M. Stokes, and C. Walker.  1996.  Corn silage: are we doing everything we can to grow the best corn silage feed?  Cows and Crops 14 (3), 2-3.

Kung, L.L. Jr. and M.R. Stokes. 1997. A new analysis for an old feed – silage.  Hoard’s Dairyman, Oct. 25, 1997, p 739.

Stokes, M. R. 1998. Carbohydrates.  A computer module chapter in the Kellogg sponsored computer assisted learning course Animal Nutrition.  Now available for purchase from ECollege.

Stokes, M. R. 1998. Carbohydrate Digestion.  A computer module chapter in the Kellogg  sponsored computer assisted learning course Animal Nutrition.  Now available for purchase from ECollege.

Stokes, M. R. 2003.  “A Newsletter Once Again.”  Mainely Progress, 1 (1), 1-2.

Stokes, M.R. and D. Marcinkowski. 2003. Maine Dairy Industry.  College of Natural Sciences, Forestry and Agriculture White Papers.  Series 4: Issues in Maine’s Natural Resources March 2003.

Dr. Stokes edits and writes columns for the twice yearly AVS newsletter, Mainely Progress.

Courses Taught:

NFA 117 Issues and Opportunities – 1 cr. (for first year students, taught with other AVS faculty). This class is designed to aid first semester students to studying at the university level and to introduce them to available university resources.

AVS 401/402 Senior Paper in Animal Science I and II, capstone courses, each 2 cr. (yearly, 20-35 students).  Writing Intensive Capstone courses involving undergraduate research and oral presentations to faculty and students.

AVS 455 Animal Nutrition – 4 cr. (yearly, 20-35 students).  Principles of nutrition; the digestion, absorption and utilization of nutrients and the consequences of their deficiency, excess or imbalance.

The following classes have been sunsetted because they were not taught sufficiently frequently.  Some have been taught for one or two students through a graduate level special topics class (AVS 590):

AVS 502 Ruminant Nutrition and Physiology – 3 cr. (graduate level – on demand). 

AVS 504 Research Methods in Ruminant Nutrition – 3 cr. (graduate level – on demand)

AVS 505 Nutritional Energetics – 3 cr. (graduate level – on demand)

AVS 507 Nutritional-Environmental Interactions – 3 cr. (graduate level – on demand)

AVS 590 Special Topics in Animal Science – Silage Production and Evaluation, 1-2 credits (graduate level – on demand)

AVS 633 Graduate Seminar – 1 cr. (taught by me each semester until Spring 2007)

AVS 690 Graduate Research (non-thesis, on demand)

Dr. Stokes is one of six AVS undergraduate student advisors who guide up to 45 students per year, including Preveterinary students.

Personal Research – current, past, and future:

Conduct research into Ruminant Nutrition, Digestion and Metabolism, Silage Production and Utilization including Hatch project “Improvement of Silage Quality and Aerobic Stability .”

Grant proposals in excess of $960,000 have been submitted to support this research, over $486,000 of support has been received from companies such as Agri-Science Inc., Agway Inc., Allied Chemical Co., BASF Corporation, Blue Seal Feeds, Cargill Inc., Christian Hansen Inc., Farmline International Ltd., The Finnish Sugar Company, Lallemand Inc., and the USDA Integrated Organic Program. 

Funds to support teaching through the generation of a Digital Image Gallery of Animal Nutrition and Animal Reproduction images was obtained through a USDA Higher Education Program Challenge Grant in collaboration with researchers at the University of Connecticut, Rutgers University, Richmond University and the National Agriculture Library. ($202,539, Maine share $39,236).

Student involvement in Dr. Stokes’ research projects:

As part of my research I have directed 5 honors students, 7 doctoral candidates and 8 Master’s degree students.  I teach the AVS capstone course sequence (AVS 401/402) where all the students are involved in undergraduate research.  One to three students per year work on research topics with me in these classes.  When I have sufficient grant funds I hire undergraduate students to assist with that research either in my lab or at the farm feeding my experimental animals.

Hobbies and Other Interests:

I have brewed my own beer, wine and hard cider for over 40 years taking ribbons at local, regional and national competitions.  In 1993 I was the American Home Brewer’s Association Cider Maker of the Year.

I am a National rank beer judge in the Beer Judge Certification Program and I have judged at the Great British Beer Festival twice (2002, 2007).



Image Description: Stokes, Martin B

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Contact Information

Animal and Veterinary Sciences
5735 Hitchner Hall, University of Maine
Orono, ME 04469-5735
Phone: (207)581-2770 | Fax: (207) 581-2729E-mail:
The University of Maine
Orono, Maine 04469
A Member of the University of Maine System