Archive for the ‘Climate Change’ Category

Science Nation Features Video of UMaine Researchers Studying in Greenland

Tuesday, November 5th, 2013

A team of University of Maine researchers studying diatom algae populations and their effects on climate change in Greenland was featured in a report by The National Science Foundation’s Science Nation.

The researchers gathered samples of diatoms — a type of algae that respond rapidly to environmental change — to study how climate change is affecting the Arctic ecosystem.

The story and video focus on Jasmine Saros’ recent NSF-funded research. Saros is the associate director of UMaine’s Climate Change Institute and is a professor in the School of Biology and Ecology. Her research team included graduate student Ben Burpee, who was partially supported by a Dan and Betty Churchill Exploration Grant through the Climate Change Institute to do related research.

GlobalPost Interviews Mayewski About Climate Change

Tuesday, October 29th, 2013

Paul Mayewski, director of the Climate Change Institute at the University of Maine, was featured in a Q&A article for GlobalPost. Mayewski spoke about the importance of climate change for the article titled “Calamity Calling: Climate change expert says Earth is having its ‘Independence Day’ moment.” He is also the science adviser for Calamity Calling, GlobalPost’s yearlong investigation into climate change.

Putnam Co-Authors PNAS Journal Article on Climate Change

Friday, October 25th, 2013

Aaron Putnam, a research associate at the University of Maine’s Climate Change Institute, is a co-author of a journal article for Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS). Wallace S. Broecker, Newberry Professor of Geology at Columbia University’s The Earth Institute, is the lead author of the article titled “Hydrologic impacts of past shifts of Earth’s thermal equator offer insight into those to be produced by fossil fuel CO2.” As fossil fuel CO2 warms the planet, the researchers expect Northern Hemisphere continents to warm faster than the Southern Hemisphere oceans. The researchers predict a northward shift of Earth’s thermal equator, sparked by the temperature contrast, may produce hydrologic changes and warm periods causing the American West, Middle East and southern Amazonia to become drier, and Asia, Venezuela and Africa to become wetter, the article states.

UMaine Professor Studies State Action Used to Save Popham Beach Bathhouse

Thursday, October 24th, 2013

An effort by the state to save a Popham Beach bathhouse with a temporary seawall of fallen trees and beach scraping is an example of an appropriate engineering endeavor to save beach-front property without harming the landscape, according to research by a University of Maine professor.

Joseph Kelley, professor of marine geology in the University of Maine’s Department of Earth Sciences and cooperating professor at the Climate Change Institute, studied a 2009 action by the Maine Division of Parks and Public Lands to save public property from beach erosion by mimicking natural processes.

“This paper points out that in special circumstances, engineering efforts, which typically destroy the dynamic of beaches and dunes, can prove beneficial,” Kelley says. “We hope these approaches work, but erosion on other parts of the beach is continuing.”

Previous approaches used to slow beach and property erosion in Maine are no longer allowed or economically feasible.

In Maine, seawalls were banned in 1983. Replacement of storm-damaged buildings is also not allowed, and a precedent case on Popham Beach in the 1980s ruled an owner had to remove an unpermitted building from a site where an earlier structure was damaged, the study states.

So when erosion threatened the newly built bathhouse on the parking lot at Popham Beach in 2009, the the remaining options for the state were moving the building back from the ocean — a costly choice — or applying temporary measures.

Because the inlet channel causing the erosion would eventually change course, the state decided to create a temporary seawall with fallen trees at the site. In December 2009, the Maine Bureau of Parks and Lands roped together fallen pine trees and secured them to standing trees on the top of the dune. The treewall was legal as a temporary structure and lessened wave and current energy in an attempt to reduce erosion. The creation of the treewall was also used to assure the public that action was being taken, according to the study.

Once the inlet channel changed course, beach scraping was used. Sand was scraped from the lower to the upper beach — without adding new material — to deflect the current away from the bathhouse.

The use of temporary solutions of beach scraping and biological barriers successfully saved the building without having to create a permanent structure or resort to expensive replenishment, Kelley writes.

“Popham Beach, Maine: An example of engineering activity that saved beach property without harming the beach” was published in the peer-reviewed science journal Geomorphology.

Contact: Elyse Kahl, 207.581.3747

Waller Blogs About Patagonian Fjords

Monday, October 21st, 2013

University of Maine marine scientist Rhian Waller shares experiences and photographs from her recent deep-sea coral expedition in Chile in her blogs on the National Geographic website.

In September, Waller traveled to Huinay Scientific Field Station near the northern Patagonian fjords to collect final samples from a yearlong deep-sea coral monitoring program studying how climate change, salmon farms, fishing and oil exploration affect deep-sea coral reproduction, and what effect any altered life cycle could have on the marine ecosystem.

In her Oct. 11 blog, Waller wrote, “Corals are not just beautiful to look at … they’re also extremely important to the health of our oceans, and ultimately the health of the planet. Coral ecosystems have been called the ‘rainforests’ of the ocean and, while this is true, they’re actually so much more.” In addition to providing habitat for many other species of marine life, Waller says corals remove carbon dioxide from the ocean and are used in the development of pharmaceutical drugs to combat cancer.

Waller and Laura Grange from the University of Southampton in England dove to retrieve data loggers placed a year ago to record temperature, salinity and light. Waller, who was heralded as a risk taker in “New Age of Exploration” in the March 2013 edition of National Geographic Magazine, received grants from the National Science Foundation and National Geographic Society to conduct the research.

Mills, Borns Talk to BDN About Salmon Decline in Maine rivers

Monday, August 12th, 2013

Katherine Mills, a research scientist at the University of Maine and the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (GMRI), and Harold Borns, founder of the University of Maine’s Climate Change Institute, were interviewed by the Bangor Daily News for the article “Climate, ecosystem linkages explain salmon declines in Maine rivers.” The article also referenced a study by scientists at the University of Maine and GMRI that found warming waters and reduced food supply off the coasts of the United States and Canada are threatening the North American Atlantic salmon. Mills was lead author of that report.

Research on Glacier, Climate Change Cited in Alaska Dispatch

Monday, August 5th, 2013

Alaska Dispatch reported on a collaborative ice core-drilling project in Alaska’s Denali National Park by the University of Maine, Dartmouth University and the University of New Hampshire. UMaine researchers include climate change scientist Karl Kreutz, Research Assistant Professor Sean Birkel and graduate students Seth Campbell and Tim Godaire. The project aims to help researchers better understand Alaska’s climate from the past 1,000 years.

Steneck, Pershing Interviewed for ThinkProgress Article on Lobster Boom

Monday, August 5th, 2013

ThinkProgress spoke with Robert Steneck, professor in the School of Marine Sciences at the University of Maine’s Darling Marine Center, and Andrew Pershing, professor in the Gulf of Maine Research Institute at UMaine, for the article “Lobster bubble: Maine’s lobster boom, and why experts predict a dramatic bust.” Steneck and Pershing spoke about the warming temperatures in the Gulf of Maine and what that means for Maine’s lobsters.

FIS, BDN Report on UMaine Student’s Cannibal Lobster Research

Tuesday, July 30th, 2013

FIS, the website of Fish Information and Services, and the Bangor Daily News are among the latest organizations to report on research by Noah Oppenheim, a marine biology graduate student at the University of Maine, that suggests climate change is creating cannibalism among lobsters. Oppenheim came to the discovery after capturing on an underwater camera adult lobsters eating adolescent ones.

Ten-State Study Focuses on Hurricane Sandy’s Effects on Tidal Marsh Birds, Plants

Friday, July 26th, 2013

The effects of Hurricane Sandy’s devastation on plant and bird communities in coastal marshes from Maine to Virginia are the focus of a 10-state study by researchers from the University of Maine, University of Connecticut, University of Delaware and Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife.

Information gathered from more than 1,700 sites before and after the October 2012 hurricane will advance researchers’ understanding of how major disturbances affect these populations and what characteristics make a marsh more vulnerable.

The data will also provide information on the allocation of millions of dollars of federal restoration funds, coastal management planning and the status of species at risk of endangerment.

The yearlong study was awarded nearly $200,000 from the National Science Foundation and is part of the Saltmarsh Habitat and Avian Research Program, which was founded by a group of academic, governmental and nonprofit collaborators — including UMaine — to provide tidal-marsh bird conservation information.

Brian Olsen, assistant professor in UMaine’s School of Biology and Ecology, is a co-principal investigator of the study. Maureen Correll, an ecology and environmental Ph.D. student in Olsen’s lab, is working on the project as part of her dissertation. Two additional student researchers from UMaine are expected to participate in the study.

Other co-principal investigators include Tom Hodgman, senior wildlife biologist at the Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife; Chris Elphick, associate professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Connecticut; and Greg Shriver, associate professor in the Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology at the University of Delaware.

Before Hurricane Sandy, Olsen’s team was working on a study to assess the distribution and densities of tidal-marsh birds from Maine to Virginia. The study was intended to give the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service more information on bird populations that are in danger due to the loss of tidal marshes from sea level rise, particularly the saltmarsh sparrow, Olsen says.

Hurricane Sandy struck in the middle of the researchers’ survey range after they had collected data for two years, giving them information from both inside and outside the storm’s path. The team sought NSF funds to conduct the surveys again to see which birds and marshes were most affected within the hurricane’s range. The marshes outside the storm’s path will serve as control sites, Olsen says.

“What predicts whether you’re a winner or a loser if a hurricane hits you is really an open question,” Olsen says.

The study will also test two common ecosystem stress hypotheses among researchers. One of those hypotheses, Olsen says, is that stresses on an ecosystem build up over time, making the addition of any new stress more dramatic than if it were to act alone. Multiple stresses can bring any species of the entire community closer to collapse with every additional stress.

“The hurricane ends up being the straw that broke the camel’s back,” he says.

Another common theory says multiple stresses eliminate the weak players, leaving only the strong ones.

“When the hurricane comes in, all the sensitive players have already been eliminated by previous stressors and you’re only left with the ones that are robust to stress; they can handle it, and the hurricane has little effect,” Olsen says.

Based on this theory, the pristine tidal marshes — ones that have more sensitive plants and animals that aren’t accustomed to stress — may appear to have been more affected by the hurricane, he says.

“I’d really like to understand what makes marshes sensitive to large-scale disturbances and how marshes are likely to respond to the predicted increase in storm frequency and intensity in the future,” Olsen says. “What makes them sensitive and what’s likely to happen as the climate changes?”

Researchers will also pay attention to whether urban development had any effect on how the storm affected the marshes.

“You get the same hurricane that’s barreling down on two different marshes. Do marshes that are completely developed right up to the marsh edge fare better, worse or the same as those that are in pristine habitats in national parks? Does conservation do anything to birds that are still around or does that not matter when there’s a wall of water coming down on you? We get to ask that for a fleet of different species,” Olsen says.

Saltmarsh sparrows, clapper rails, Nelson’s sparrows, seaside sparrows, willets and black ducks are the six major bird species in the study. Plant species the team will study include smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), salt hay (Spartina patens), seashore saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) and black needlerush (Juncus gerardii).

The surveying of saltmarsh sparrows is important because the team is able to track the species’ entire range and population. The species is also declining fast and talks have begun on whether to list them under the Endangered Species Act. The team’s data on the birds will be used to help make that determination, Olsen says.

Using the information from hundreds of marshes with different characteristics, Olsen’s team hopes to be able to predict what causes ecosystems to shift from one type of tidal marsh to another following a major storm, or more dramatically, what causes shifts from tidal marsh to open water or beach dunes. By determining these factors, researchers will have a better understanding of where to focus energy for conservation and where to expect ecosystem shifts in the future, Olsen says.

“We’ve visited a couple places already this summer where last year it was a beautiful tidal marsh with picturesque streams, and now it’s sand dunes or open water; it’s just gone,” he says.

The team hopes their information will help influence agencies using Hurricane Sandy relief funds to restore wildlife communities by prioritizing the marshes that would benefit the most from conservation efforts and have the lowest chance of being destroyed by a similar storm in the future.

Contact: Elyse Kahl, 207.581.3747