7. Footnotes/Endnotes: While most essays and book reviews do not require the use of footnotes or endnotes, formal research papers do call for them. In addition to indicating the source of specific information, notes may also be used to explain or expand upon points made in the text. All direct quotes or paraphrased material, and any specific fact or information that is not common knowledge, must be cited. This applies also to graphs, charts, or images inserted into the text. Simply rewriting a passage in one’s own words does not eliminate this obligation; one should still acknowledge the source of ideas or information taken from someone else’s work. The purpose of such notes is to let the reader know the source of the information presented and, if necessary, to check its veracity. It is crucial, therefore, that sources be cited properly, including specific page references, and that notes be placed correctly in the text – do not rely on collective footnoting, where all the notes for a long paragraph are grouped in a single note at paragraph’s end. On the other hand, if parts of a single sentence draw upon multiple sources, there is no need for more than one note.
Check with the instructor regarding a preference for footnotes vs. endnotes. Both kinds should be single-spaced, numbered consecutively, and include the author, title, place where published, publisher, publication date, and page numbers [see examples below]. Subsequent notes can be abbreviated, but must always include author, page number, and (where there may be ambiguity) short title. Parenthetical notes in the text itself, while common to several social science disciplines, are not used in most history papers (again, unless the instructor so advises). Where the use of internet sources is permitted – and this should not be taken for granted without consulting with the instructor – cut and paste the address for the exact page where the information was found and the date of retrieval. [But keep in mind that “I found it on the internet” may not make the information any more reliable than “I heard it from some guy in a bar.”]
8. Bibliography. At the end of the paper, and beginning on a separate page, there should be a list of all the works consulted, i.e., a Bibliography. The format for bibliography entries differs slightly from the note formats cited above. For example, because works are listed in alphabetical order, last names come first; and for chapters and articles, in lieu of individual page numbers the entire page range is given. When the bibliography grows to more than a page or so, it is common to list primary and secondary sources separately. The following footnote / endnote and bibliography formats are used for the most common kinds of sources: