Touch-Screen Technology for the Dynamic Display of 2D Spatial Information Without Vision: Promise and Progress
Many developers wish to capitalize on touch-screen technology for developing aids for the blind, particularly by incorporating vibrotactile stimulation to convey patterns on their surfaces, which otherwise are featureless. Our belief is that they will need to take into account basic research on haptic perception in designing these graphics interfaces. We point out constraints and limitations in haptic processing that affect the use of these devices. We also suggest ways to use sound to augment basic information from touch, and we include evaluation data from users of a touch-screen device with vibrotactile and auditory feedback that we have been developing, called a vibro-audio interface.
Klatzky, R.L., Giudice, N.A., Bennett, C.R., & Loomis, J.M. (2014). Touch-screen technology for the dynamic display of 2D spatial information without vision: Promise and progress. Multisensory Research. 27(5-6), 359-378.