Authors: Beth Bisson1, Medea Steinman2, and Esperanza Stancioff1,2
1Maine Sea Grant
2University of Maine Cooperative Extension
Grade level: 4-12
Themes: Phenology, animal and plant life cycles and life history
Activity type: Field observation and drawing
Setting: Classroom and outdoors
This activity can be used independently or as an extension of the Signs of the Seasons Plant and Animal Life Cycle Drawings activity. Using those same procedures, students will draw life cycle timeline calendars for two species that are interdependent for food, pollination, reproduction, or habitat. (Examples include monarch butterflies and common milkweed or honeybees and wild blueberry.)
For this exercise, the life cycle drawing is stretched out in a line and matched to the dates on a calendar year. (If you aren’t able to observe all phenophases, you can estimate, based on guidebook information). Students use SOS phenology observation protocols and data sheets to monitor the species on their school grounds or elsewhere in their community. They use their recorded data to develop a timeline of species’ phenophases. Students learn field observation and data collection skills. They are encouraged to hypothesize and make predictions about species interactions and effects. They may also share what they learn by giving presentations at school.
A1 Unifying Themes – Systems
3-5. Students explain interactions between parts that make up whole man-made and natural things.
6-8. Students describe and apply principles of systems in man-made things, natural things, and processes.
9-Diploma. Students apply an understanding of systems to explain and analyze man-made and natural phenomena.
A3 Unifying Themes – Constancy and Change
3-5 a. Recognize patterns of change including steady, repetitive, irregular, or apparently unpredictable change.
6-8. Students describe how patterns of change vary in physical, biological, and technological systems.
B1 Skills and Traits of Scientific Inquiry
3-5 a. Pose investigable questions and seek answers from reliable sources of scientific information and from their own investigations.
6-8. Students plan, conduct, analyze data from, and communicate results of investigations, including simple experiments.
C1 The Scientific and Technological Enterprise – Understandings of Inquiry
3-5 a. Describe how scientists answer questions by developing explanations based on observations, evidence, and knowledge of the natural world.
9-diploma. Students describe key aspects of scientific investigations: that they are guided by scientific principles and knowledge, that they are performed to test ideas, and that they are communicated and defended publicly.
E2 The Living Environment – Ecosystems
3-5. Students describe ways organisms depend upon, interact within, and change the living and non-living environment as well as ways the environment affects organisms.
6-8. Students examine how the characteristics of the physical, non-living (abiotic) environment, the types and behaviors of living (biotic) organisms, and the flow of matter and energy affect organisms and the ecosystem of which they are part.
Expectations and Misconceptions: It’s important to mention to students that variability is normal in the natural world. If they do not see changes when they expect to, or among all individuals of the same species, they should be cautioned against leaping to conclusions. Encourage them to think carefully about what they have observed and consider as many explanations as possible.
Note: see Resources section below for links to these items on the Web
And, depending on what species will be monitored:
(See the Resources section below for links to SOS/NPN websites and materials)
Reflection: Ask participants to reflect on their field experience, the data collection system, and the preparation of the timeline. Reflect on what worked well and what they could do differently next time. Ask them to talk about any ways their expectations about the timing of their species’ phenophase changes were or were not met. Can they speculate about possible reasons or causes?
Formative assessment: Collect the students’ science notebooks or journals to see how well they recorded their observations and understood the process and the data they collected. Do they seem more comfortable with the process of making observations and collecting data in the field? Save examples of student work for reference the next time you try this activity.
Try to find historical phenology data for these same species and compare your life-cycle calendar with that information. [Note: SOS staff may be able to help you find historical information. Contact the staff to ask about this.]
Ask students to conduct research in the library about this topic. Can they find stories about species pairings? If so, ask them to learn about those relationships and make predictions about what might happen if either species changed its timing. Can they find examples where mismatches in timing are known to be occurring? What causes are attributed to this? [SOS may also be able to help point you to articles and stories. Contact us for more information].
Signs of the Seasons (http://umaine.edu/signs-of-the-seasons)
USA National Phenology Network (http://www.usanpn.org)
Getting set up with Signs of the Seasons:
SOS Field Guide (http://umaine.edu/signs-of-the-seasons/resources-for-observers/)
SOS Indicator Species (http://umaine.edu/signs-of-the-seasons/indicator-species/)
USA-NPN Nature’s Notebook (https://www.usanpn.org/user?destination=MyNPN)
To get started, follow instructions in the Field Guide for selecting a site and choosing species and individual plants to observe. Then register an account with Nature’s Notebook. Once you do that and enter your site(s) and species list, you’ll be able to access the Data Sheets for downloading and printing. These can be used outdoors when recording your observations.
For assistance contact:
Esperanza Stancioff, Climate Change Educator
University of Maine Cooperative Extension/Maine Sea Grant
207.832.0343; 1.800.244.2104 (in Maine); email@example.com
Beth Bisson, Assistant Director for Outreach and Education
Maine Sea Grant College Program
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