Faculty - Alan M. Rosenwasser
Alan M. Rosenwasser
Phone: (207) 581-2035
Research in my laboratory focuses on the chronobiology of alcohol intake in animal models.
What is chronobiology?
Chronobiology is the scientific study of biological rhythms. The most well-studied biological rhythms are the “circadian” rhythms, endogenous cycles with near-24-hour periods that influence processes ranging from gene expression to mood and cognition. In complex animals such as vertebrates, circadian rhythms are controlled by a multi-oscillatory circadian timing system that includes a circadian “pacemaker” localized in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, as well as a large number of “secondary” circadian oscillators, located throughout the brain and body. This distributed circadian timing system is normally synchronized (“entrained”) by periodic factors in the environment, including daily cycles of light and darkness, temperature, and food availability. Recent research has indicated that disruption of normal circadian timing contributes to sleep disorders, depression, jet-lag and shift-work related health problems, and cancer. Thus, the study of circadian rhythms is critical to understanding normal psychobiological function, to the improvement of public health, and to the development of better treatments for various medical conditions.
How is chronobiology related to alcohol intake?
Human clinical studies suggest that excessive alcohol intake disrupts normal circadian patterns of sleep-wake behavior and other physiological functions. In turn, chronobiological disruption appears to promote and sustain excessive alcohol intake. In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying these relationships, my laboratory has been exploring interactions between circadian rhythms and alcohol intake in experimental animals including rats, mice, and hamsters. In these studies, we are examining the effects of alcohol exposure on circadian rhythms, as well as the reciprocal effects of circadian rhythm disruption on voluntary alcohol intake. In addition, we are examining the genetic modulation of these relationships using rats and mice with genetic predispositions to consume (or avoid) alcohol. To date, we have found that chronic alcohol intake alters fundamental properties of the circadian pacemaker, and that circadian disruption induced by exposure to a simulated “jet-lag” lighting regimen modifies alcohol intake. We hope that this work will eventually lead to the development of improved circadian-based strategies for the management or even prevention of alcohol related disorders. Our work has been supported by the National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), by the Integrative Neuroscience Initiative on Alcoholism (INIA), and by the Maine Institute for Human Genetics and Health (MIHGH).
In addition to my position in the Department of Psychology, I am also a cooperating faculty member in the School of Biology and Ecology, the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (GSBS), and the University of New England’s Center for Excellence in the Neurosciences.
- Rosenwasser, A.M. Circadian clock genes: non-circadian roles in sleep, addiction, and psychiatric disorders? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 34, 1249-1255, 2010.
- Rosenwasser, A.M. Circadian rhythms. In I.B. Weiner and W.E. Craighead, eds., The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, Fourth Edition, Volume 1, John Wiley & Sons, 2010, pp. 317-319.
- Rosenwasser, A.M., Clark, J.W., Fixaris, M.C., Belanger, G.V. and Foster, J.A. Effects of repeated light-dark phase shifts on voluntary ethanol and water intake in male and female Fischer and Lewis rats. Alcohol, 44, 229-237, 2010.
- Logan, R.W., Seggio, J.A., Robinson, S.L., Richard, G.R. and Rosenwasser, A.M. Circadian wheel-running activity during withdrawal from chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in mice. Alcohol, 44, 239-244, 2010.
- Rosenwasser, A.M. Functional neuroanatomy of sleep and circadian rhythms. Brain Research Reviews, 61, 281-306, 2009.
- Rosenwasser, A.M. Entrainment of circadian rhythms by light. In L.R. Squire, ed., Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Volume 3, Oxford: Academic Press, 2009, pp. 1125-1132.
- Seggio, J.A., Fixaris, J.D., Reed, J.D., Logan, R.W. and Rosenwasser, A.M. Chronic ethanol intake alters circadian phase shifting and free-running period in mice. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 24, 304-312, 2009.
- Clark, J.W., Fixaris, M.C., Belanger, G.V. and Rosenwasser, A.M. Repeated light-dark phase shifts modulate voluntary ethanol intake in male and female high alcohol-drinking (HAD1) rats. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 31, 1699-1706, 2007.
- Seggio, J.A., Logan, R.W. and Rosenwasser, A.M. Chronic ethanol intake modulates photic and non-photic circadian phase shifting in the Syrian hamster. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 87, 297-305, 2007.
- Rosenwasser, A. M. and Turek, F. W. Physiology of the mammalian circadian system. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth and W. C. Dement, eds., Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, Fourth Edition, Elsevier-Saunders, 2005, pp. 351-362.
- Rosenwasser, A. M., Logan, R. W. and Fecteau, M. E. Chronic ethanol intake alters circadian period-responses to brief light pulses in rats. Chronobiology International, 22, 225-234, 2005.
- Rosenwasser, A. M., Fecteau, M. E. and Logan, R. W. Effects of ethanol intake and ethanol withdrawal on free-running circadian activity rhythms in rats. Physiology and Behavior, 84, 537-542, 2005.
- Spanagel, R., Rosenwasser, A. M., Schumann, G., and Sarkar, D. K. Alcohol consumption and the body’s biological clock. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 29, 1550-1557, 2005.
- Rosenwasser, A. M., Fecteau, M. E., Logan, R. W., Reed. J. D., Cotter, S. J. N. and Seggio, J. A. Circadian activity rhythms in selectively bred ethanol-preferring and nonpreferring rats. Alcohol, 36, 69-81, 2005.
- Boulos, Z. and Rosenwasser, A. M. A chronobiological perspective on allostasis and its application to shift work. In J. Schulkin, ed., Allostasis, Homeostasis, and the Costs of Physiological Regulation, Cambridge, 2004, pp. 228-301.
- Rosenwasser, A. M. Neurobiology of the mammalian circadian system: oscillators, pacemakers, and pathways. In S. J. Fluharty and H. J. Grill, eds., Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology v.18, Elsevier Academic Press, 2003, pp.1-38.
- Rosenwasser, A. M. and Dwyer, S. M. Phase shifting the hamster circadian clock by 15 minute dark pulses. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 17, 238-247, 2002.
- Rosenwasser, A. M. and Dwyer, S. M. Circadian phase shifting: relationships between photic and non-photic phase-response curves. Physiology and Behavior, 73, 175-183, 2001.
- Rosenwasser, A. M. Alcohol, antidepressants, and circadian rhythms: human and animal models. Alcohol Research and Health, 25, 126-135, 2001.