Taking the Pain Out of Creating PDF Files
For those who have not created a PDF before from their electronic file the process can be a daunting task. At Printing Services we want to make the process as pain-free as possible. That is why the following step-by-step directions have been compiled to help you create PDF files.
For Mac OSX Users:
1. Choose File > Print.
2. In the page setup dialog box, choose document size and click on Options.
3. In the resulting dialog box, drop down the settings list and select Custom Print Size.
4. Click on New and name your new custom size. Enter 0 for all printer margins. For paper size, always enter the long dimension of your poster as the horizontal dimension and the shorter dimension of your poster as the width.
5. Choose Save and select Page Attributes from the settings drop down menu.
6. Set the Paper Size to the custom page size you just saved and set the orientation to portrait. Click OK twice.
7. Now choose File > Print. Click on Save to PDF.
8. Name and save the PDF file to the desired location (i.e. Desktop). OS X automatically embeds all fonts and graphics at their highest quality. Be sure to open and check your PDF once it’s made. Instructions for this follow.
For Windows Users:
1. Go to the Page Setup option found under the File menu. Note the width and height of your file.
2. Choose File > Print.
3. Set the printer to “Adobe PDF” and click on Properties.
4. Under the layout tab, choose Portrait orientation and then choose Properties.
5. Choose PostScript Custom Page Size and set the dimensions you noted in step one and click OK.
6. Under the Advanced Options, set the following values:
a. Print Quality = 600 dpi
b. True Type Font = Download as Softfont
c. True Type Font Download Option = Automatic
and Click OK
7. In the Adobe PDF settings tab, uncheck the do not send fonts to “Adobe PDF” box. Under Adobe PDF Conversions Settings, select “Press Quality” in the default settings then click on Edit.
8. In the Images tab set both Downsample and Compression to “OFF” for all versions of images. Click on “Save As” to name and save these settings for future use. Select OK three times.
9. Assign a file name, choose a location and click Save to create your PDF file. Be sure to check your results using the instructions below.
Checking PDF Files
1. Open your PDF file in Acrobat Reader.
2. Choose Document Properties from the File menu.
3. Choose “Fonts” from the document properties window. This will show a list of all fonts used in your PDF. Make sure each font name is followed by (Embedded Subset). Make sure you do not have the option for using local fonts on. Select OK once you are done with this window.
4. Scroll through your PDF to visually inspect that the file looks just like it should when printed.
5. Print a copy of your PDF project to confirm that it is performing and printing correctly.
|Printing and Mailing Services offers both automated and manual folding, tabbing, envelope stuffing, addressing, and postage metering services.
Please contact our customer service representatives for more information or an estimate on your bulk mailing project.
So, you want to do a mailing?
The purpose of this free, downloadable PowerPoint presentation is to help members of the University of Maine community save money, time and frustration when undertaking bulk mailings.
In this presentation, we discuss ways to save money, which include using mail automation and CASS (Coding Accuracy Support System) certification. We include a brief look at U.S. Postal regulations controlling bulk mailings and discuss how to build an address database from scratch.
Download So, you want to do a mailing? PowerPoint presentation (Zipped file 910Kb). The full, supplemental text of the discussion appears in the notes section of the Powerpoint file.
Download a free copy of SmartMailer error list (2Kb) as a text file.
Download a free copy of our Excel Address Database Spreadsheet (14Kb).
This Powerpoint was first presented at the 2008 CEAC Professional Development Day, University of Maine, March 4, 2008 by Kimberly Sawtelle.
Download a free copy of PowerPoint Viewer 2007. This link will open in a new window.
The University of Maine holds a standard non-profit mailing permit (Permit No. 8) for departments wishing to send their mail at a bulk rate.
The following conditions must be met before mail can be sent at the automated bulk rate:
For more information about mailing regulations, including size and weight restrictions, visit our Mailing Regulations page.
First-Class Mail Automation Letters and Cards
First-Class Mail is required for personal correspondence, handwritten, or typewritten material, and bills or statements of account. It may also be used for any mailable item, including advertisements and lightweight merchandise.
Mailers should be designed to allow a 4-3/4 inch x 5/8 inch space at the bottom for postal barcodes. Do not include content information in this area.
Postcard Address Panels
The minimum size of a postcard address panel, typically located on the right-hand side of the back of a postcard, is 3-3/8 inch x 3 inch from the bottom of any return address type. When designing your postcard mailer, confirm that adequate space is alloted to meet this regulation. Postcards failing to meet these regulations will be subject to a higher postage rate. Suggested pre-formatted templates for UMaine print projects, including postcards, are available on the University Division of Marketing & Communications website.
Image Description: Tabbing Machine for Bulk Mailings
Planning content for handouts, presentations, posters, and Powerpoint for workshops, classrooms, and conferences
Think ahead. Plan what you want your handout or presentation to accomplish or communicate.
Consider your audience
• Who is your audience?
— Is your audience a cross-section of the public, specialists, or lay people?
— What are the needs or expectations of the audience?
— Do you need to explain concepts, vocabulary, or terminology?
• What are the demographics of your audience?
— Will a majority of your audience be children, middle age, senior citizens, or teenagers, or will it be a mixed group across the age span?
— Is one or more audience member likely to be affected by low vision, impaired hearing, or mobility issues?
— What are the likely reading and math abilities of the audience?
— Is one or more of your audience likely to be an English-as-a-Second-Language learner?
— What, if any, gender, cultural, or social biases or sensitivities need to be addressed?
• What is your goal for the audience?
— What action do you want the audience to take with the information and material you provide?
Create your content
• Clarify your purpose by defining the goal of the material being developed.
• Plan for multi-purposing, as appropriate (i.e. handouts that can be printed from your Powerpoint presentation).
• Keep content simple, concise, and objective
— Prioritize content. Summarize the most important information in one or two brief paragraphs at the top of your document.
— Answer the 5 W’s: who, what, when, where, and why, as appropriate.
— Write at a 6th grade level.
— Explain only one idea per sentence.
— Keep sentences 25 words or less in length.
— Use a tone that avoids unnecessary formality.
— Answer readers’ obvious questions.
• Use a table of contents, when appropriate, to guide the user to the information they are looking for.
• Use relevant headings and subheadings.
• Use numbered lists and bold type to emphasize keywords and make main ideas stand out.
• Avoid empty content:
— Avoid using jargon and buzzwords unless they are defined.
— Avoid using promotional language that communicates “hype” rather than substance.
— Avoid using pop lingo, texting lingo, street slang, or colloquial terms.
• Define acronyms in context.
• Develop straightforward, captioned graphics, charts, or illustrations to reinforce crucial facts explained in textual content.
A poster is a vehicle to start a dialogue. It should catch the eye of your audience and stimulate curiosity about what you have to say. Just remember, it’s a poster, not a novel.
Clarify your message by identifying your audience and defining the purpose of your poster.
“Need to know:” The primary message of your poster is essential.
“Good to know:” Information that supports your position, rationale, or approach that can add extra interest.
“Nice to know:” Contextual information that is interesting but not essential. Save “nice to know” items for dialogue with your audience or provide it in supplemental handout materials.
One option for a basic poster layout is to place the title at the top of the poster, followed by the author’s name and affiliation. Think of the remaining poster content in terms of an abbreviated thesis; include an abstract or purpose statement, introduction, brief outline of methodology and summarized results, as well as references. Use graphics to illustrate important points of interest.
Organize your content logically into the following areas, as appropriate:
• Abstract (if appropriate)
Western European audiences are conditioned to information flowing from left to right, top to bottom. Arranging poster content to follow this pattern will increase visual and cognitive accessibility of your poster for audiences scanning for information.
Draw a thumbnail sketch of your poster, with a top-to-bottom, left-to-right flow of information in a spatial grid divided into three to four columns. This will help you organize the flow and visual impact of information.
When designing your poster keep the content:
• Well organized
Posters should employ the KISS and KILL philosophy.1
Keep it Short and Simple (KISS)
Keep it Large and Legible (KILL)
Poster content should be organized in a logical sequence that makes your message clear and guides the user to the information they are looking for. Graphics should be selected with care to illustrate specific points. Support graphics with descriptive captions.
For maximum accessibility, poster text should be legible from a distance of 4 to 10 feet for individuals with 20/20 vision. (Fonts illustrated above are not to scale.)
• Headlines should be 100 to 150 point san serif font
• Subheads should be 40 to 48 point san serif font
• Content text should be 36 to 38 point san serif font
• Caption text should be 30 to 34 point san serif font
• References should be 24 point san serif font
Graphics, photos, and charts should:
• Be 300 dpi resolution or above
• Be cropped or enlarged to focus on essential content
• Illustrate important points
• Be succinct, specific, and attractive
• Include titles or explanatory captions
To ensure full accessibility of your poster to all members of the audience, have large-print handouts of your poster’s content available to give away.
Image Description: Bee Poster Sample
Image Description: Information Flow Diagram
Image Description: Fonts & Sizes for Posters
One of the best practices to adopt when thinking about document design is keeping an open mind. Your routine design and formatting preferences (e.g., bold, centered headlines and underlined subheads) may not offer the best solutions for usability and accessibility. Time spent identifying your audience will help guide graphic design decisions when creating your poster, Powerpoint, or presentation handouts.
Documents with complex layouts will discourage many readers.
• Keep your document layout clean and simple.
• Provide ample white space—indents, margins, and open spaces—to guide the reader’s eye.
• Use paragraphs and graphic placement to enhance the flow of concepts.
a. Planning your design.
• Do you have a production deadline?
• Do you have budgetary considerations?
• Do you have staff available to assist in production?
• Do you have access to the professional services necessary to produce the product you need?
• What formatting choices will best serve your audience and accommodate your content?
— Single or double-sided print?
— Length or space constraints?
— Folded, stapled, comb, or spiral bound pages?
Printing and Mailing Services can assist with this phase of your project planning, providing free estimates and guidance to optimize design, development, and delivery of your presentation materials.
b. Selecting elements of your design.
Structure—Prioritizing content and organization
In traditional typography, the reader’s eye is guided by line length, font style and weight, text alignment, and the use of white space.
• Visual structure is controlled by the alignment of elements.
• Visual importance is created through the use of font size, weight, color, or letter spacing.
• Visual hierarchy is the arrangement of elements from the most prominent to the least prominent.
• Use high-contrast colors for both text and background.
• Avoid superimposing dark print over a dark or patterned background.
• Avoid superimposing print over busy photographs.
• Avoid using multiple colors of text.
• Avoid using more than three font faces or styles per document.
• Restrict color text to prominent elements, such as titles or headlines.
• White-on-black print (negative or reverse print) provides high contrast but is considered more difficult to read than black-on-white.
• Do not use color alone to communicate content.
The four quadrant illustration above shows the words “High Contrast” in black Arial font superimposed on white, buff, and bright yellow backgrounds as well as white lettering on a black background.
High-contrast lettering such as black or dark blue text on a yellow, ivory, or buff background is optimal for all degrees of visual acuity. Notice how the black type on the buff background in the upper right quadrant reduces glare, allowing the eye to relax to make reading easier.
This four quadrant illustration shows the word “Effective” in black Arial font superimposed on a buff background. The words “Less Effective” appear in white type on a black background. The words “Not Effective” are shown in purple against a dark green background and in blue on a blue background.
Compare the visual effectiveness of black text on a buff-colored background compared to white text on a black background. Does your eye feel more relaxed reading the buff-colored quadrant?
Notice how visually ineffective lower contrast type appears on dark background. How does your eye feel as you read the green quadrant?
Avoid superimposing print over busy photographs or patterned backgrounds.
The four quadrant illustration above shows the word “Effective” in black Arial font superimposed on a buff background. The words “Not Effective” are superimposed over a photograph of a pink pansies and appear illegible. The words “Not Effective” are also shown superimposed over two different patterned backgrounds, also resulting in illegible text.
Sans Serif fonts, such as Verdana or Arial are typically considered easier to read than Serif fonts, such as Times or Georgia. For maximum legibility:
• Use 16 to 18 point for large-print documents.
• Avoid using any fonts smaller than 12 points.
• Use fonts with easily recognized upper and lower case letters.
• Avoid using elaborate script or decorative fonts.
• Avoid using condensed fonts.
• Use fonts with medium thickness, not thin strokes.
• Use bold or heavy font to emphasize specific words or passages.
• Avoid using underlines.
• Avoid extensive use of all upper-case letters or italics.
The illustration above depicts four acuity charts showing four different font faces—Times Bold, Arial Bold, Futura Bold Condensed, and Courier Std. Bold—in graduated point sizes: 18 point, 16 point, 14 point, 12 point, 10 point, 8 point, 6 point.
Sans Serif fonts, such as Arial, are typically considered easier to read than Serif fonts, such as Times. Compare the legibility of four different font faces and font sizes shown in the four acuity charts above. For large print documents, use fonts that are 16 to 18 points in size. Avoid using fonts smaller than 12 points.
Avoid using elaborate cursive or script fonts and decorative or “funky” fonts with irregular patterns and difficult-to-recognize letterforms, as shown in the illustration above.
Columns of left-justified text placed in conjunction with ample margins and adequate white space, requires less eye movement and less use of peripheral vision, making content more accessible. This style of layout also makes the use visual aids, such as magnifiers, easier for some readers.
• Avoid horizontal crowding text by pushing letters closer together
• Avoid vertical crowding lines of text by reducing leading
• Avoid spreading lettering out horizontally to fill space
• Use wide binding margins
• Avoid fully justified or right-justified text in the main body of your document
• Keep column width proportional to point size (9 to 12 words per line)
Avoid the temptation to either create or fill space in your document by crowding letters or lines of text or spreading letters out across the page.
The illustration above contains three text samples showing how spacing of letters impacts legibility. The first line of text, “Avoid the temptation to crunch letters together to fit everything you want on a page,” has reduced letter spacing (kerning). The second line of text, “Avoid the temptation to crowd lines of text together in order to fit everything you want on a page,” has reduced line spacing (leading). The third line of text, “Avoid spacing letters too far apart in order to fill excess white space,” has expanded letter spacing (kerning).
People look for familiar letter shapes and predictable spacing patterns when reading. When text has fully justified margins, it may lead to uneven spacing between words that interfere with legibility for people with low vision or lower reading ability. Fully justified margins mechanically determine the number of words per line by forcing spacing from pre-set margin to pre-set margin. The illustration above is a sample of how fully justified margins can cause text to space itself unpredictably, interfering with readability.
Different types of paper react differently to various inks and printing processes. When in doubt about the type of paper your project needs, consult with the customer service representatives at Printing and Mailing Services.
• Paper brightness is measured on its ability to scatter reflected light. The more textured (or duller) the paper, the lower the brightness value and the greater the likelihood inks may run or wick, decreasing legibility.
• Coated papers typically take ink better, improving legibility.
• Select a coated paper with a matte or silk finish to enhance readability.
• Use a light-colored paper, such as warm white, buff, or light yellow, and black or navy blue text to increase contrast and legibility.
• Use an opaque paper with appropriate absorbency to prevent smudging and avoid two-sided printing from showing through the other side.
• Select a paper size appropriate to your project that provides adequate space for legible and logical layout.
Image Description: High Contrast Graphic
Image Description: Effective Contrast
Image Description: Effective Patterns
Image Description: Acuity Charts
Image Description: Awkward or "Funky" Fonts
Image Description: Spacing Issues
Image Description: Full Justified Text
The official University of Maine non-discrimination notice exists in both a long and a short form. The long form is to be printed in undergraduate and graduate catalogs, employee and student handbooks, and other lengthy publications distributed to students, employees, applicants for admission, and job applicants. The short form is to be printed on brochures, application forms, newsletters, and other short publications distrubuted to students, employees, and applicants for admission, and job applicants.
Official text for these notices can be obtained at University of Maine office of Equal Opportunity and Diversity Web site umaine.edu/eo/non-discrimination-notices-for-umaine-publications/. This link will open in a new window.
The official University of Maine Style Guide, including standard letterhead and business card design templates, is available online here. Style guide regarding suggested guidelines for printed & web materials for University departments are listed at here.
Questions about using University logos in your project design or obtaining electronic files for high resolution print publications should be directed to the University Division of Marketing & Communications.
University Printing & Mailing have some basic printing templates that can also help in terms of sizing and folding formats.
Click on the file name to download a zipped folder to your computer:
Postcard postal regulations template (use as a layer below your postcard design to ensure proper placement of address and other content)
Top Quality at Affordable Prices
We strive to provide our clients with top-quality printing and mailing services at the best prices in the industry. All our presses conform to international standards for offset lithography and offer clients options for print jobs running from slick, 4-color magazines to one-color newsletters in smaller runs.
Our knowledgeable staff will work with you to determine the most cost-effective approach to print the quality product you want.
Our customer service staff is happy to help you navigate the confusing world of paper stock and work with you to identify the paper that will produce the best results for your project.
Our house paper is American® flo gloss and dull coated papers. American® papers are FSC-Certified, acid-free and Elemental Chlorine-free, and contain 50% recycled content including 15% post-consumer waste. Available in Superb Gloss and Luxurious Silk finishes, American® papers excel in readability performance for fine text. The blue-white shade and 90 Tappi brightness reproduces images in crisp detail. The even surface provides exceptional ink holdout and superior smoothness.
We can also offer clients a variety of Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI), Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Rainforest Alliance, and Green-E certified products from paper manufacturers including Domtar, Finch, Fox River, Mohawk, Monadnock, Neenah, and Smart Papers.
Printing Services was among the first printers in the state of Maine to adopt an entirely chemical-free, Computer-to-Plate (CTP) platemaking process. We also use 100% vegetable-based inks on all our presses.
The CTP process uses anodized aluminum plates with carbon coating, processed using a Dimension 800 Plate Burner. Electronic files for press are sent to the Dimension 800, which uses 16 lasers to burn away the carbon coating and create a durable, positive plate. The plate making process is completed with a water wash to scrub loose carbon residue from the finished plate. Plates created through this process incur fewer defects, including damage from dust, scratches, and other artifacts.
Printing Services uses 100% vegetable-based inks in our printing. Vegetable-based inks use vegetable oil rather than petroleum solvents as a vehicle for carrying pigments. Vegetable inks present environmental advantages over petrolium-based inks primarily in that they release far fewer volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and are derived from renewable resources. Vegetable-based inks are also biodegradable and are easier to de-ink during the recycling process.
Printing Services can also rent press time to other printers in the region. Please contact Dan Curtis, Associate Director of Printing and Mailing Services, 581-3772, for more information and scheduling.
14″ x 20″ (36 x 52 cm) Heidelberg GTO 2-color Offset
28″ x 40″ (71 x 102 cm) Heidelberg 1-color Offset
20″ x 28″ (52 x 72 cm) Heidelberg 4-color CMYK Offset
20″ x 28″ (52 x 72 cm) Man Roland 1-color Offset
13″ x 17″ (34 x 45 cm) Ryobi 3200 MCD 1-color Offset for envelopes and business cards
Halm Super Jet envelope press for 1 or 2-sided; 1 or 2-color output.
Submitting Offset Press Orders
In order to serve you better, we ask customers to please:
1. Complete and submit an Order Form, available online or as a downloadable PDF.
2. Submit a firm, dated deadline (not “ASAP”) with your order.
3. Submit your document both as the “native” design file, and as a Press Quality PDF file, online, by e-mail, or on disk.
4. When possible, submit a hardcopy mock up of your job.
5. Be available to review page proofs and blue lines.
Please visit our Pricing page for current pricing information.
Image Description: Offset Lithography
Image Description: Chemical-free
AAs: Author’s Alterations. Refers to changes made after a job has been submitted (such as changes in design, layout, copy, graphics or photographs). Printers charge for AAs.
Absorbency: the capacity a paper has to absorb liquids, like the inks or water used to run offset lithographic presses.
Acid-free paper (also Archival): paper that has an alkaline pH and resists deteriorating over time. Archival paper must be acid-free and alkaline with a pH of 7.5 to 8.5.
Accordion fold: a type of parallel fold consisting of two parallel folds in opposite directions. Each panel of an accordion fold is approximately the same size. When viewed on end, the fold forms a Z or W. Also known as Z-fold or concertina fold.
Alkaline paper: paper made using additives to create an alkaline pH. Alkaline paper is used where aging resistance is desired.
Archival paper (also Acid-Free): paper that has an alkaline pH and resists deteriorating over time. Archival paper must be acid-free and alkaline with a pH of 7.5 to 8.5.
Banner: the area on the front of a newsletter that identifies the publication.
Binding: fastening papers together for ease of reading, transportation and protection. Papers may be bound using a variety of materials—like wire, thread, glue or plastic combs.
Bleed: an image, text or printed color that runs off the edge of a page. Bleeding one or more edges of a printed page increases both the amount of paper needed and the overall production cost of a printed job. When formatting a document to bleed, provide a minimum of 1/8” of text or color beyond the printed page. Bleeds are created by trimming the excess paper after printing.
Blind embossing: stamping raised letters or images into paper using pressure and a die but without adding foil or ink to the raised areas.
Blueline: a printer’s proof. All AA’s and corrections should be made prior to seeing a blueline. Changes to a blueline increase the overall cost of a job.
Brightness: the brilliance of a paper.
BRC/BRE: abbreviation for Business Reply Card and Business Reply Envelope.
Buckslip: one or more small inserts about the size of a dollar bill, enclosed in a letter or brochure. Used to emphasize a special offer or summarize the letter or brochure.
C1S: paper that is coated on one side only (coated one side).
C2S: paper that is coated on both sides (coated two sides).
C-fold: a type of parallel fold that creates six panels from a sheet of paper. Commonly used for bi-fold, tri-panel brochures, the C-fold is also known as letter fold, trifold or brochure fold.
Carrier envelope (also OME and OSE): the Outer Mailing Envelope or Outside Envelope in which the mailing is sent.
Characters per inch: the average number of a specific type face and size that fit into one horizontal inch or pica of type.
CMYK: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black.
Coated paper: paper with a coating applied to one (C1S) or both side (C2S). Coated papers are available in a variety of finishes including gloss, dull and matte. Coated papers tend to accept ink with minimal dot gain, which is important for creating sharp, bright images.
Compiled list: names gathered from public sources, often containing additional demographic information. A compiled list does not represent any sort of past buying activity.
Continuation line: a line of type that indicates where an article continues to or from. Also called jump line.
Crop: to cut off part or parts of an image or graphic.
Cut-size: paper sizes of 8 1/2″x11″, 8 1/2″x14″, or 11″x17″.
Debossing: pressing letters or illustrations into a sheet of paper using a metal or plastic die to create an impressed (debossed) image.
Design template: a framework for page design that includes the grid structure of the page (number and width of columns; width of margins; location of fixed elements) as well as font selection and type specifications and color scheme. Used to promote design consistency and efficient production.
Desktop Publishing: the process of creating plate-ready artwork on a personal computer.
Die-cutting: using a molded, metal-edged die to precision cut shapes into or out of a piece of paper. If a printing project requires a custom-made die, the total cost of the job will increase.
Direct-to-Plate: The process by which plates are created using information sent to a direct-to-plate device from a computer, bypassing film.
Dot gain: when wet ink coming in contact with paper, spreading as it transfers. Paper weight, type of paper (coated or uncoated) and press type effect the amount of dot gain.
Dummy: A folded sample used to show finished size, shape and binding requirements.
Duotone: a two-color halftone of the same image created with two screens, two plates, and two colors.
Electronic Publishing: the process of distributing printed information in electronic formats.
Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF): a bleaching process that does not use chlorine gas. See our Paper page to view the variety of ECF papers we offer.
Em Space: a lateral space equal to the width of the lower case letter “m”.
Emboss: A process by which a metal die is used for raising an area of paper to create letterforms, shapes and textures.
En space: a lateral space equal to the width of the lower case “n”. Used in typography and typesetting.
End sign: a dingbat or printer’s ornament used to mark the end of a story. It signals the reader that they have reached the end of the article.
EPS: Encapsulated Postscript. A vector based, computer graphics file format developed by Adobe Systems. EPS is the preferred format for many computer illustrations because of its file size and color control.
Felt finish: a soft texture that affects the look of an uncoated paper.
Foil stamping: impressing a thin, flexible sheet of metal or pigment on paper. Clear or opaque foil is carried on a plastic sheet. Stamping separates the foil from the plastic and makes it adhere to the paper.
Four-color Process: combining dots of cyan (C), magenta (M), yellow (Y) and black (K) to simulate the continuous tones and variety of colors in a color image.
French fold: two folds at right angles to each other to create an 8-panel brochure.
Galley Proof: preliminary print of typeset material submitted by the typesetter for correction or approval by a proofreader prior to blueline and printing. Also called a galley.
Gatefold: two or more parallel folds on a sheet of paper with the end flaps folding inward.
GIF: acronym for Graphic Interchange Format. GIF is one of the two most common file formats for graphic images on the World Wide Web. (The other is JPEG.) GIF files can be various resolutions and in color. Because GIF files are limited to 256 colors, they are more effective for scanned images such as illustrations rather than color photos. GIF files end with a .gif extension.
Gripper: A clamp-like device which grabs the front of the press sheet and pulls it through the press. Also refers to the edge of the press sheet which leaves the press first.
Guillotine: a machine with a cutting blade that moves between two upright guides, and trims stacks of paper uniformly as it moves downward.
Guts: the inside pages of a booklet, magazine, book, or other multi-page publication that has a separate cover.
Gutter: the inside margins or blank space between two facing panels.
Halftone: the use of dots to simulate the tones between light and dark.
Hard copy: A printed copy of text or a page layout.
House list: a mailing list compiled by the business.
Indicia: postal information placed on a printed product.
JPEG: acronym for Joint Photographic Experts Group, an ISO/IEC group of experts that develops and maintains standards for a suite of compression algorithms for computer file images. Also a term for any graphic image file produced by using a JPEG standard. JPEG files end with a .jpg extension.
Jump line: a line of type that indicates where an article continues to or from. Also called continuation line.
Justified type: columns of type in which each line length is identical and type is aligned (i.e., justified) on both the right and left margins. Type is justified by changing the spacing between individual words in each line.
Kicker: a short phrase set above the headline. A kicker introduces a section heading or identifies a regular column.
Left-justified: columns of type are aligned (i.e. justified) with the left margin. Also ragged right.
Linen finish: a paper finish that appears similar to the texture of linen fabric.
Mailing panel: the portion of a mail piece containing the return address, mailing address of the recipient and postage.
Masthead: the section of a newsletter that lists the publisher and other pertinent data such as staff names, contributors, subscription information, addresses, logo. Typically located on page 2.
Merge/Purge: a data process that merges two or more lists or files, then purges the file of duplicates.
Nameplate: the area on the front of a newsletter that identifies the publication. Usually contains the name of the newsletter, possibly graphics or a logo, and perhaps a subtitle, motto, and publication information including volume and issue number or date. Also called banner.
NCR forms: multiple-part, “No Carbon Required,” carbonless form papers available in up to 6 parts which can be padded or loose. The back of the NCR paper is coated with a thin layer of microcapsules that contain a colorless dye in a hydrocarbon solvent; writing or printing pressure breaks the capsules and releases the dye, which reacts with a clay or resin coating on top of a second paper sheet, located directly below the first, to produce visible color.
Opacity: how opaque a paper is. The more fibers or fillers a paper has, the more opaque it is and the less it allows printing on the reverse to show through.
Pantone Matching System (PMS): a solid color communication system based on the visual matching of individual, pre-mixed colors. Colors are represented in a series of books with thousands of precisely printed colors alongside printers’ formulas for mixing those colors. The original Pantone Matching System included 504 colors and has since been expanded to include 1,012 colors along with their printing ink formulations. (Definition courtesy of Pantone.)
Parallel fold: one of two basic types of folds; the folds run parallel to each of the preceding folds.
PDF: an acronym for Portable Document Format, a universal file format that preserves the fonts, images, graphics, and layout of any source document, regardless of the application and platform used to create it.
Perfect binding: a book binding process where pages are glued together and then adhered directly to the cover of the book to create a flat spine. A telephone directory is one example of a perfect binding.
pH: the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a material. Paper with a pH below 7.0 is considered acidic; paper with a pH above 7.0 is considered acid-free, or alkaline.
Pica: a unit of measurement commonly used for lines of type. Six picas = one inch. Also used to describe a typewriter type that prints 10 characters per inch.
Plate: an object, onto which an image is burned using light, which is placed onto a press for the use of printing ink onto paper.
Point: a standard unit of measurement for type; used for measuring depth of printing. One point is equal to .013836 of an inch; six points = one pica; 72 points = one inch. Points are used not only to measure the type itself, but the space around it. Points and picas may also be used to set margins, specify column widths, and spaces between columns.
Pre-consumer Recovered Paper: paper material recovered after the papermaking process but before consumer use.
Post-consumer Recovered Paper: paper material recovered after consumer use.
Pull quote: a small selection of text pulled out from the main body of the article and quoted in a larger typeface.
Ragged right type: columns of type in which the length of each line is different and word spacing is consistent. Ragged right type aligns type along the left margin but not along the right margin, leading to a more casual look.
Raster fonts: bit-mapped fonts. Unlike scalable fonts, bit-mapped fonts must be designed for a specific device and at a specific size and resolution.
Raster graphics file: a file containing a grid of x and y coordinates. The coordinates identify which are illuminated in monochrome or color values. Also called a bit map because it maps information directly to the display grid.
Raster image processing (RIP): the process of converting files into raster graphic images or bit maps. Laser printers use RIP to convert vector images (such as the letters in a font) into raster graphics images.
Raster: a row-oriented representation of images such as the horizontal lines on a television or computer monitor.
Ream a package typically containing 500 sheets of text weight paper or 250 sheets of index or card stock.
Recycled Content Paper (RCP): product containing less than 100% recovered fiber.
Recycled Paper: a paper product consisting of 100% recovered fiber.
Right angle fold: one of two basic types of fold; the fold runs perpendicular to each of the preceding folds.
Right justified: columns of type are aligned (i.e., justified) with the right page margin creating a ragged left margin with irregular line lengths.
Roll fold: a type of parallel type fold consisting of two or more folds that turn in on each other.
Saddle stitch: a book binding where pages are stapled together through the spine of the book.
Sans serif: a type face that has no tails or curled points (serifs) at the ends.
Scalable font: a font represented with vector graphics. The best-known vector font system is PostScript. Also known as outline fonts or vector fonts.
Score: creasing paper to help it fold better.
Self cover: a booklet having a cover made of the same paper as the inside pages.
Sheet-fed press: a press that prints single sheets of paper, rather than a continuous roll or “web” of paper.
Side stitch: binding by stapling along one side of a sheet.
Signature: a sheet of printed pages which, when folded, become a part of a book or publication.
Smoothness: the surface property of paper that describes its degree of uniform evenness and flatness; typically, the smoother the paper, the better the ink dot formation and the sharper the image.
Specifications: customer-defined listing of exactly what is required to produce a printed piece—paper, ink, sides to be printed, number of pages, bindery requirements, finished size.
Spot color: single colors applied when process color is not necessary or when process colors need to be augmented (i.e. a fluorescent pink headline or a metallic tint).
Style sheet: in a document, the rules for using typography, color, punctuation and grammar.
Subhead: a few words that appear within the body of an article that divides it into smaller sections.
Swatchbook: a booklet containing paper samples and paper specifications.
Swipe file: a collection of noteworthy examples of various items of interest that can be used by a writer or editor to promote creativity or to assist in developing copy for publication.
Tail: the edge of the press sheet that leaves the press last.
Tear strength: a measure of how likely a paper will continue to tear once started.
Tensile strength: a measure of how likely a paper is to break when pulled at opposite ends, in opposite directions.
Teaser copy: words printed on the outside of a mail piece that interest the reader in opening the mail piece.
TIFF: acronym for Tagged Image File Format, a widely used file format for storing bit-mapped images. TIFF graphics can be any resolution; can be black and white, gray scale or color. Files in TIFF format end with a .tif extension.
Toner adhesion: the extent to which toner is “melted” and bonded to the paper.
Toner: a fine, negatively charged, plastic-based powder.
Trim size: the final size of a printed piece once it’s been cut to specification.
UV Ink: ink specially formulated to dry quickly with ultraviolet (UV) light while still on press.
Varnish: a coating printed on top of a printed sheet to protect it, add a finish, and/or add a tinge of color. An entire sheet may be varnished, or certain areas, like halftones, may be spot varnished to add emphasis and appeal.
Vegetable-based ink: ink using vegetable oil as the vehicle for carrying pigment. Vegetable ink colors tend to be more vibrant than petroleum-based inks but may take longer to dry.
Vector graphics: a method of representing images as mathematical formulates to define the shapes in the image. Vector graphics are more flexible than bit-mapped graphics because they look the same when scaled (i.e., when the size is changed). Also known as object-oriented graphics.
Whiteness: the measure of light reflected from a sheet of paper. How white a paper is depends on how evenly it reflects all colors in the visible spectrum.
Work and tumble: printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from the gripper to the tail to print the second side using the same side guide and plate for the second side.
Work and turn: printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from left to right, using the same side guides and plate for the second side.
Our thanks to the Society for Service Professionals in Printing for use of these vocabulary words.
The official University of Maine Style Guide, including standard letterhead and business card design templates, is available online at www.umaine.edu/relations/styleguide/. This link will open in a new window.
Questions about using University logos in your project design or obtaining electronic files for high resolution print publications should be directed to the Department of University Relations.
Click on the file name to download a zipped folder to your computer:
Postcard postal regulations template (use as a layer below your postcard design to ensure proper placement of address and other content)