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Wheat Variety Trials - 2012 Organic Spring Wheat Variety Trial Results – Maine & Vermont

2012 Organic Spring Wheat Variety Trial Results — Maine & Vermont (PDF)

Ellen Mallory, Heather Darby, Thomas Molloy, Erica Cummings, Hannah Griffin

Bread wheat is a new crop option for farmers in Northern New England due to increasing consumer demand for locally grown food. In 2010, the University of Maine and University of Vermont began a series of trials evaluating varieties of hard red wheat to identify those that perform well in northern New England under organic production. This publication presents results for spring wheat varieties tested in 2012, and for select data, results from 2010 and 2011, as well. Separate publications of prior years’ full results are available for spring and winter wheat (http://umaine.edu/localwheat/research/variety-trials/).

This collaborative work was funded by a grant from the USDA Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative to improve bread wheat production in our region.

Table 1. Spring wheat varieties planted in ME, VT, and NY in 2012.

† HR =  hard red, SW = soft white, AD = amber durum  ‡Year of release not always available  § To be released in 2013 under the name “Yorkton”
# Abbreviations: AAFC = Agric. & Agri-Food Canada, ACRS = Agric. Canada Rsrch. Station, FBC = Farmer Breeder Club, MAES – Minnesota Agric. Expt. Station
NDAES = North Dakota Agric. Expt. Station, NDSU – North Dakota State Univ., NPSAS = North Plains Sustainable Agric. Society, PEI = Prince Edward Island,
SDAES = South Dakota Agric. Expt. Station, WSU = Washington State Univ.

Variety Type† Origin and Year of Release‡ Seed Source
07SW04§ HR Semican, Canada, 2013 Semican, Canada
Ada HR MAES, 2006 Albert Lea Seed House, MN
Barlow HR NDAES, 2009 ND Foundation Seed
AC Barrie HR AAFC#, Saskatchewan, 1994 Semences RDR, Quebec
Brick HR SDAES, 2000 ND Foundation Seed
Faller HR NDAES, 2007 Albert Lea Seed House, MN
FBC Dylan HR NPSAS/FBC, 2006 Research farm saved seed
Fortuna HR NDSU, 1966 O.J. Lougheed, WA
Glenn HR NDAES, 2005 ND Foundation Seed
Helios HR AAFC, Saskatchewan, 2007 Research farm saved seed
Jenna HR Agripro Syngenta, 2009 Research farm saved seed
Kaffé SW Semican, Canada Research farm saved seed
Kyle AD AAFC, Saskatchewan, 1984 O.J. Lougheed, WA
McKenzie HR SWP/ARD, 1997 Semican, Canada
Magog HR Semican, Canada, 2009 Semican, Canada
Oklee HR MAES, 2003 MN Foundation Seed
RB07 HR MAES, 2007 MN Foundation Seed
Red Fife HR Heritage var., ca. 1860 Ehnes Org. Seed Cleaning Ldt
Roblin HR ACRS, Winnipeg, 2001 Research farm saved seed
Sabin HR MAES, 2009 MN Foundation Seed
Steele HR NDAES, 2004 Albert Lea Seed House, MN
Superb HR AAFC, Winnipeg, 2001 Oliver Seeds, VT
Sy Soren HR Agripro Syngenta, 2011 Albert Lea Seed House, MN
Tom HR MAES, 2008 MN Foundation Seed
Ulen HR MAES, 2005 MN Foundation Seed
AC Walton HR AAFC, PEI, 1995 Grands Falls Milling, NB

TRIAL DESIGN AND VARIETIES

Trials were established at four locations in the Northeast: the University of Maine Smith Farm in Old Town, ME; Rainbow Valley Farm, a commercial organic dairy farm in Sidney, ME; the Borderview Research Farm in Alburgh, VT; and Willsboro Research Farm in Willsboro, NY. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications, which means that each variety was planted in four separate plots at each location. The spring wheat varieties that were evaluated are listed in Table 1. All but two are hard red types. Hard red wheat is preferred for bread flour.

WEATHER CONDITIONS

Seasonal precipitation and temperature were recorded at or near trial locations (Table 2). The Alburgh, Old Town, and Willsboro locations had weather stations in close proximity to the trial sites, while the Sidney location had a weather station within 8 miles. Early spring conditions (March and April) were substantially warmer and drier than normal for all locations, allowing for early planting. The VT and NY locations also experienced above average temperatures during the middle and later part of the growing season. The two ME sites had above average precipitation prior to and during wheat flowering (June) and experienced drier and warmer than average conditions during grain fill and harvest (July to early August).

Table 2. Precipitation, temperature, and growing degree days at the test sites. †      

Location March April May June July August Total
Old Town, ME
Total Precipitation (in.)  1.95 3.68 4.30 6.03 0.99 2.81
Departure from Normal (in.)  -2.10 -0.07 0.46 1.98 -2.57 -0.50
Average Temperature (°F)  36.1 43.9 54.8 60.9 67.9 68.5
Departure from Normal (°F)  6.6 2.4 2.3 -0.6 0.4 3.0
Growing Degree Days§  126 356 707 867 1114 1096 4266
Waterville, ME
Total Precipitation (in.)  1.71  3.34  3.48  ‡  0.57  3.69  —
Departure from Normal (in.) -1.75 -0.14 -0.31 -2.98 0.24
Average Temperature (°F) 37.3 45.6 56.7 62.8 71.6 70.7
Departure from Normal (°F) 5.3 2.6 2.2 -1.2 2.1 2.7
Growing Degree Days§ 162 408 766 924 1227 1202 4689
Alburgh, VT
Total Precipitation (in.)  1.5  2.64 3.90  3.22  3.78  —  —
Departure from Normal (in.) -0.8 -0.18 0.45 -0.47 -0.37
Average Temperature (°F) 39.7 44.9 60.5 67.0 71.4
Departure from Normal (°F) 8.60 0.10 4.10 1.20 0.80
Growing Degree Days§ 331 396 884 1046 1221 3878
Willsboro, NY
Total Precipitation (in.)  1.0  2.8 4.4  3.2  3.8  2.9  —
Departure from Normal (in.) -1.2 0.0 0.9 -0.5 -0.4 -1.0
Average Temperature (°F) 43.2 46.1 61.6 67.8 73.0 72.0
Departure from Normal (°F) 12.1 1.3 5.2 2.0 2.4 3.2
Growing Degree Days§ 411 411 435 917 1072 1271 4517

† Based on National Weather Service data from cooperative observer stations in close proximity to field trials available at
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/crn/report.  Historical averages are for 30 years (1981-2010) available at http://cdo.ncdc.gov/cgi-bin/climatenormals.pl
‡ Monthly average not availble due to missing data points.   § Base 32°F

CULTURAL PRACTICES

Plots were managed following practices similar to those used by farmers in New England (see Table 3).

University of Maine Smith Farm – Old Town, ME – The previous crop in this field was silage corn. The site was moldboard plowed on April 4. Solid dairy manure was spread at a rate of 25 tons/acre on April 10 and immediately incorporated with a Perfecta harrow. Plots were planted on April 12 with an Almaco cone seeder at a rate of 51 live seeds/ft2. The plots were top-dressed on June 8 with 100 lbs/acre of Chilean nitrate. The plots were harvested on August 7 with a Wintersteiger Classic plot combine. Harvest area was 4′ x 33′.

Rainbow Valley Farm – Sidney, ME – The previous crop in this field was high moisture ear corn. The site was moldboard plowed on April 5. Solid dairy manure was then applied at a rate of 20 ton/acre and immediately incorporated with a disk harrow. On April 13, the field was spring-tooth harrowed and planted on April 14 with an Almaco cone seeder at a rate of 51 seeds/ft2. The plots were harvested on July 31 with a Wintersteiger Classic plot combine. Harvest area was 4′ x 33′.

Borderview Research Farm – Alburgh, VT – The previous crop in this field was no-till sunflowers/grass sod. The field was disked and spike-tooth harrowed in March prior to planting. Plots were seeded on April 6 using a Kincaid Cone Seeder at a rate of 33 live seeds/ft2. The plots were harvested on July 31 with an Almaco SPC50 plot combine. Harvest area was 5′ x 20′.

Willsboro Research Farm – Willsboro, NY – The previous crop in this field was winter wheat. A 3-year old timothy/alfalfa sod was plowed in August 2010 prior to planting of the winter wheat. In April 2012, the field was disked and spike-tooth harrowed. Plots were seeded on April 13 using a custom eight-row cone seeder. The plots were seeded at a rate of 33 live seeds/ft2. The plots were harvested on August 8 with a Hege plot combine. Harvest area was 4′ x 13′.

Table 3. General plot management of the 2012 spring wheat trials.

University of Maine Smith Farm Old Town, ME Rainbow Valley Farm Sidney, ME Borderview Research Farm Alburgh, VT Willsboro Research Farm Willsboro, NY
Soil type

Stetson fine sandy loam,
Colton gravelly sandy loam

Buxton silt loam Benson rocky silt loam

Kingsbury silt clay loam

Previous crop

Silage corn

High moisture ear corn Sunflowers/Grass sod

Winter wheat

Tillage operations

Moldboard plow, perfecta harrow

Moldboard plow, disk harrow, spring tooth harrow Fall plow, spring disk & spike-toothed harrow

Fall plow, spring disk & spike-toothed harrow

Fertility source

Solid dairy manure (25 tons/acre)
Top-dressed chilean nitrate (16 lbs N/acre)

Solid dairy manure (20 tons/acre) Grass sod

Timothy/Alfalfa sod

Estimated available nitrogen (lbs/acre) 90 55‡ 65-75

65-75

Seeding rate (live seeds/ft2)† 51 51 33

33

Planting date 4/12/12 4/14/12 4/6/12

4/13/12

Harvest date 8/7/12 7/31/12 7/31/12

8/8/12

Row spacing (in) 6.5 6.5 6

6

Harvest area

4′ x 33′

4′ x 33′ 5′ x 20′

4′ x 13′

† The target seeding rate was calculated to achieve the same plant density for each variety.  This translated to 150-273 lbs seed/acre (average 191),  and depended on the seed weight and germination of each variety.
‡ The intended rate of N application was about 70 lbs/acre but the N content of the manure used was lower than usual for this farm.

MEASUREMENTS AND METHODS

Flowering date was recorded for each variety where possible. Plant heights were measured at physiological maturity in ME and at harvest in VT and NY. Prior to harvest, the incidence and severity of lodging was noted for each variety.

All varieties were harvested on the same day at each site once the latest maturing variety threshed free in hand tests and weather and logistics allowed. Following harvest, grain was cleaned with a small Clipper cleaner and weights were recorded. Harvest moisture and test weights were determined using DICKEY-john GAC 2100 grain moisture meters.

Subsamples were ground into flour using a Perten LM3100 Laboratory Mill. The ground material was then analyzed for crude protein, falling number, and mycotoxin levels. Protein content was determined using a Perten Inframatic 8600 Flour Analyzer. Most commercial mills target 12-14% protein. Falling number was determined on a Perten FN 1500 Falling Number Machine. The falling number is related to the level of sprout damage that has occurred in the grain due to enzymatic activity. It is measured as the time it takes, in seconds, for a plunger to fall through a slurry of flour and water to the bottom of the tube. Falling numbers less than 200 seconds indicate high enzymatic activity and poor quality wheat. Concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin produced by the fungus that causes Fusarium head blight, were determined using the Veratox DON 2/3 Quantitative test from the NEOGEN Corp. This test has a detection range of 0.5 to 5 ppm. Samples with DON values greater than 1 ppm are considered unsuitable for human consumption.

All data were analyzed using mixed model Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in which replicates were considered random effects. The LSD procedure was used to detect whether differences among variety averages were statistically significant and was only conducted if the ANOVA F-test was significant (P<0.05) (see below for an explanation of significant difference). There were significant differences between the locations for most parameters, so results from each location are reported independently.


What Is a Significant Difference?

Variations in yield and quality can occur not only due to genetics but also due to variability in soil, weather, and other growing conditions. Statistical analysis makes it possible to determine whether a difference between two varieties is real or whether it might have occurred due to other variability in the field. The Least Significant Difference (LSD) is the minimum difference needed between two averages to consider them statistically different. LSDs at the 5% level of probability are presented at the bottom of each table for each measure. Where the difference between two varieties within a column is equal to or greater than the LSD value, you can be sure in 19 out of 20 chances that there is a real difference between the two varieties.

In the example below, variety A is significantly different from variety C because the difference between their yields (1454) is greater than the LSD value (889). Variety A is not significantly different from variety B because the difference between their yields (725) is less than the LSD value (889).

Throughout this bulletin, the greatest value at each site for each measure is indicated with an underline and bold type. Varieties that are not significantly different from the greatest value are also in bold type. Using the example below, variety C had the highest measured yield (underlined and bolded) but it was not significantly different than the yield of variety B (bolded).

Example Table

Variety Yield
A
B
C
3161
3886
4615
LSD 889

RESULTS

Growth and Development 

Due to the warm, dry weather in March, all locations were planted two to three weeks earlier than what is considered normal for the region. This allowed for good early growth, limited weed pressure, and good to excellent yields and overall quality.

Flowering occurred early in 2012 (Table 4), on average two weeks earlier than in 2011.  Brick and Roblin were the first varieties to flower at all three locations; AC Walton was one of the latest.

Plant heights ranged from 28 to 51 inches (Table 4).  Red Fife was the tallest variety, while RB07, Jenna and Sabin were the shortest.  Ada and Sy Soren, planted at the Alburgh and Willsboro sites, were also among the shortest varieties.

Lodging occured in some varieties.  Helios and Sabin had some of the highest lodging rates at the Alburgh site, while Fortuna and Kyle experienced lodging at the Willsboro location.  At Old Town, Red Fife experienced lodging, which may have been exacerbated by high fertility rates.

Table 4. Estimated wheat flowering date and plant height at Old Town, ME, Alburgh, VT, and Willsboro, NY.

Variety Estimated Flowering Date Plant Height (inches)
Old Town, ME Alburgh, VT Willsboro, NY Old Town, ME Alburgh, VT Willsboro, NY
07SW04  21-Jun <18-Jun <22-Jun 40 41 38
Ada  — <18-Jun <22-Jun 30 31
Barlow 21-Jun <18-Jun <13-Jun 38 36 35
AC Barrie 21-Jun <25-Jun <22-Jun 41 40 37
Brick 19-Jun <11-Jun <13-Jun 40 39 36
Faller 21-Jun <18-Jun <22-Jun 38 34 34
FBC Dylan 20-Jun <18-Jun <22-Jun 40 37 32
Fortuna <18-Jun <22-Jun 37 41
Glenn 20-Jun <18-Jun <22-Jun 41 38 36
Helios <18-Jun <22-Jun 39 40
Jenna 23-Jun <25-Jun <22-Jun 34 32 28
Kaffé† <25-Jun <22-Jun 45 38
Kyle† <18-Jun <22-Jun 42 41
McKenzie 22-Jun <18-Jun <22-Jun 44 36 38
Magog 22-Jun <25-Jun <22-Jun 44 42 40
Oklee 22-Jun <18-Jun <13-Jun 38 34 31
RB07 20-Jun <18-Jun <22-Jun 32 33 32
Red Fife 24-Jun <25-Jun <22-Jun 51 47 42
Roblin 19-Jun <11-Jun <13-Jun 44 41 38
Sabin 21-Jun <18-Jun <22-Jun 35 35 30
Steele 21-Jun <18-Jun <22-Jun 38 35 32
Superb 21-Jun <25-Jun <22-Jun 37 38 35
Sy Soren <18-Jun <22-Jun 31 29
Tom 20-Jun <18-Jun <22-Jun 37 34 33
Ulen 21-Jun <11-Jun <13-Jun 38 35 31
AC Walton 24-Jun <25-Jun <28-Jun 45 43 39

† Variety is not a hard red type.

Yield

Yields for 2012, 2011, and 2010 are presented in Table 5.  Yields from 2012 are also presented in graphical form in Figure 1 to easily compare varieties.

A typical yield for organic hard red spring wheat grown in this region is about 2,000 to 2,500 lbs/acre (Matt Williams, personal communication, 2011).  Alburgh, Old Town, and Willsboro all produced yields well above average while yields at the Sidney location were more in line with typical yields.  Over all of the locations in 2012, Faller, Jenna, Magog, Tom, and AC Walton were among the highest yielding varieties, whereas Red Fife, Roblin, and Glenn were among the lowest yielding varieties.  Faller and Tom have been among the higher yielding varieties for all sites over the three years of trialing.

Table 5. Yield of spring wheat, ME, VT, and NY. 

Variety Yield at 13.5% Moisture (lbs/acre)†
Old Town, ME Sidney, ME Alburgh, VT Willsboro, NY
2012 2011 2010 2012 2011 2010 2012 2011 2010 2012 2011 2010
07SW04  3963 2560  —  2140  2502  —  3592  799  3263  933  —
Ada 2917 2098 3030 2382 3733 992 1011 3488 1579 2215
Barlow 4324 2922 2530 3170 3609 978   3989 1604
AC Barrie 3796 2578 2077 2221 2606 1987 3022 711 845 2755 736 1864
Brick 4450 2748 2143 2763 3578 1102 3582 1744
Faller 5086 3221 3575 2166 3653 3260 3998 965 1580 3981 1634 3235
FBC Dylan 4588 2900 2987 2587 2945 2566 3168 796 1286 3227 1101 2202
Fortuna 2706 3319
Glenn 3948 2644 2334 1860 2695 2200 3260 730 1063 3864 1863 2001
Helios 3156 1353 1148 3976 1165 2016
Jenna 4781 3338 2861 3355 3865 1168 3453 1437
Kaffé§ 3919 1307 2009 3568 1153 2653
Kyle§ 2843  — 3687
McKenzie 4135  2218 2127 2508 2191 847 1146 3472 1593 2527
Magog 4779 2695 2396 2849 3257 2765 4048 1013 1281 3351 500 2582
Oklee 4361 3134 3353 2291 2771 2943 3131 813 1130 2757 1190 2147
RB07 4115 3047 2766 2303 3281 2716  3776 695 1113 3774 1526 2136
Red Fife 3368 2278 2036 2119 2529 1993 2604 788 1083 2937 477 2325
Roblin 3921 2289 2523 2065 2793 2071 3026 758 1097 3455 686 1838
Sabin 4393 2692 2986 1911 3058 2920 2666 940 1247 2882 863 2599
Steele 4653 2759 2829 1777 3110 2643 3367 749 1222 3260 882 2183
Superb 4440 2650 3168 2190 2996 2807 3658 1226 1297 3363 1536 2429
Sy Soren 4294 3513
Tom 4488 3087 3684 3082 3179 3050 4159 1267 1298 3600 1627 1980
Ulen 4358 2816 2969 2142 2755 2679 3755 900 1277 2817 1532 1916
AC Walton 4919 2736 2699 2377 3001 3339 847 1222 3669 534 2872
Site Average 4343 2773 2780 2287 2950 2599 3402 945 1229  3423 1213 2301
LSD (0.05)  588 417 453 661 561 515 592 359  473  489 525 352

† All varieties at each site were harvested on the same day.
‡ For all measures, bolded values are not significantly different from the highest value, which is indicated with an underline.
§ Variety is not a hard red type.

 

Graph of yields at 13.5% moisture at each trial location

Alternative Text (Word)

Wheat Quality

Commercial mills use a variety of measurements to determine if a particular lot of wheat is suitable for bread flour, including grain protein, test weight, falling number, and mycotoxin (DON) concentration.

Crude protein levels were good in 2012, with levels at or above 12% at all sites (Table 7 and Figure 2). Roblin, Glenn, and the experimental variety 07SW04 had the highest protein levels across all locations. AC Walton, FBC Dylan, and Faller had the lowest protein levels in ME, in NY and VT, Kaffé had the lowest protein levels.

The standard test weight for wheat is 58 lbs/bushel, with an acceptable range of 56-60 lbs/bushel. In 2012, most varieties had good to excellent test weights, with the exception of Red Fife and AC Walton in Sidney. Glenn, Brick, Barlow, and Tom had the highest test weights across locations (Table 6).

Falling number values were well above the acceptable level (250 seconds) for all of the varieties grown at each location with the exception of Ulen at the Old Town site (Table 6).

Fusarium head blight, which produces the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), is a disease of major concern for wheat growers in northern New England. It primarily infects the plant during flowering and is favoredby cool, humid weather. The United States Food and Drug Administration has established a maximum DON guideline of 1 ppm for finished human products. Millers may accept grain with slightly higher DON levels because, through cleaning, they can remove some of the infected grain and reduce DON levels. DON levels were low at the Alburgh and Willsboro locations (Table 8), with only one variety, Kyle, testing at 1 ppm. In Maine, DON levels were moderate compared to previous years, with half of the varieties testing below 1 ppm, and variety performance being fairly consistent among locations. The varieties Jenna and Superb had the highest levels in 2012 at both Maine sites, as well as in prior years. Varieties that have consistently shown lower than average DON levels over the three years of these trials include AC Barrie, Faller, Glenn, Sabin and the experimental variety 07SW04.

Table 6. Test weight and Falling number of spring wheat in ME, VT, and NY. 

Variety Test Weight (lbs/bu) Falling Number at 14% Moisture (seconds)
Old Town, ME Sidney, ME Alburgh, VT Willsboro, NY Old Town, ME Sidney, ME Alburgh, VT Willsboro, NY
    2012     2012
07SW04  61  59 61  59  479  500 461 462
Ada 62 60 464 481
Barlow 64 60 61 60 398 371 399 395
AC Barrie 61 59 61 59 491 461 453 447
Brick 63 60 62 59 423 437 410 357
Faller 62 58 61 58 453 440 432 417
FBC Dylan 62 59 61 59 456 486 479 476
Fortuna 59 59 408 440
Glenn 64 60 64 60 422 403 379 393
Helios 60 58 485 465
Jenna 61 57 61 58 472 411 422 371
Kaffé§ 60 57 374 322
Kyle§ 60 59 467 452
McKenzie 61 58 61 57 470 442 421 407
Magog 61 58 61 59 520 520 464 474
Oklee 63 59 61 58 474 475 425 432
RB07 61 59 60 57 394 421 401 377
Red Fife 60 54 61 59 372 383 377 359
Roblin 60 58 59 58 467 434 389 382
Sabin 61 58 59 57 458 496 468 483
Steele 62 58 62 58 392 423 410 408
Superb 60 58 61 58 395 501 433 400
Sy Soren 62 59 432 430
Tom 62 59 62 59 445 449 450 448
Ulen 60 58 61 59 295 340 393 375
AC Walton 60 54 57 57 444 430 434 431
Site Average 61 58 61 58 436 441 428 419
LSD (0.05)  0.49 1.24 0.9 1.3 29.0 31.8

† All varieties at each site were harvested on the same day.
‡ For all measures, bolded values are not significantly different from the highest value, which is indicated with an underline.
§ Variety is not a hard red type.

 

Table 7. Protein concentration of spring wheat in ME, VT, and NY.

Variety Crude Protein at 12% Mositure (%)
Old Town, ME Sidney, ME Alburgh, VT Willsboro, NY
2012 2011 2010 2012 2011 2010 2012 2011 2010 2012 2011 201
07SW04 14.1  11.7  —  14.7  13.6  —  15.0  13.3  —  14.3  16.6  —
Ada 11.4 16.0 13.3 12.6 13.0 12.3 14.6 12.5 14.2 15.0
Barlow 13.0 11.3 13.4 13.5 14.1 13.0 12.9 15.3
AC Barrie 14.0 11.6 16.0 14.3 13.1 14.5 15.1 13.3 16.8 12.7 15.3 16.1
Brick 13.2 10.5 13.0 12.1 14.0 13.8 12.7 15.5
Faller 10.9 10.8 14.9 11.4 11.0 12.2 12.9 11.0 14.4 11.4 13.9 14.4
FBC Dylan 12.3 10.5 14.6 11.3 11.2 11.7 13.6 12.3 13.8 11.4 13.8 14.1
Fortuna 14.1 12.7
Glenn 14.7 12.0 16.4 13.8 13.8 15.4 14.9 12.5 16.0 14.1 15.6 17.0
Helios 14.3 13.8 16.0 12.6 14.3 17.3
Jenna 13.3 10.9 13.0 11.7 13.9 13.0 11.7 13.9
Kaffé‡ 12.0 11.3 13.7 11.1 12.9 14.2
Kyle‡ 13.7 11.8
McKenzie 12.7 10.9 12.2 11.8 13.1 11.8 15.3 11.9 14.7 15.3
Magog 11.9 10.5 15.6 12.7 12.1 12.6 13.1 13.0 15.9 12.6 15.0 14.9
Oklee 13.7 11.5 15.7 13.7 12.6 12.5 14.6 13.5 15.6 12.9 14.8 16.1
RB07 13.4 11.4 15.8 13.1 12.7 14.3 13.7 12.5 15.2 12.3 14.3 15.8
Red Fife 11.2 12.2 16.4 12.2 12.4 14.2 13.6 12.8 16.2 12.5 14.4 15.3
Roblin 15.3 12.8 16.6 13.9 13.5 14.8 15.7 15.0 16.0  15.1 15.8 18.0
Sabin 12.3 10.9 15.7 12.1 11.9 12.0 13.6 13.0 16.9 11.6 14.5 14.7
Steele 13.7 11.7 15.8 12.6 12.6 13.7 13.9 13.3 15.2 12.4 15.2 16.2
Superb 13.4 11.7 16.0 12.6 13.0 13.4 13.4 13.5 15.0 13.0 14.5 16.0
Sy Soren 14.1 13.3
Tom 13.8 10.7 14.6 12.7 13.1 13.2 14.4 13.3 13.6 12.7 14.7 15.6
Ulen 14.6 11.9 16.0 13.5 13.2 14.4 14.1 13.0 15.3 12.3 14.6 16.7
AC Walton 10.8 10.9 15.6 12.1 11.0 13.8 12.3 15.7 12.1 15.5 13.7
Site Average 13.1 11.3 15.7 12.9 12.5 13.4 13.9 12.9  15.3 12.6 14.8 15.6
LSD (0.05) 0.95 0.6 0.8 0.97 0.8 1.4 0.8 1.3 0.8 0.8  

† For all measures, bolded values are not significantly different from the highest value, which is indicated with an underline.
Variety is not a hard red type.
§ Average value taken from one sample per variety instead of four.

 

Crude protein levels at 12% moisture for each trial location

Alternative Text (Word)

Table 8. DON levels for spring wheat in ME, VT, and NY.

Variety DON (ppm)
Old Town, ME Sidney, ME Alburgh, VT Willsboro, NY
2012 2011 2010  2012 2011 2010  2012 2011 2010  2012 2011 2010
07SW04  0.5 1.3  — <0.5  <0.5  — <0.5 <0.5 <0.5  <0.5  —
Ada 4.1 1.6 1.0 0.6 <0.5 <0.5 3.3 <0.5 <0.5 0.8
Barlow 1.0 3.4 1.1 1.5 0.6 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
AC Barrie <0.5 2.2 0.8 0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 3.3 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Brick 0.6 1.8 <0.5 0.7 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Faller 0.5 1.8 1.2 0.6 0.5 1.3 <0.5 <0.5 2.3 <0.5 <0.5 0.7
FBC Dylan 0.7 4.1 2.6 0.6 0.6 1.5 0.6 <0.5 2.8 <0.5 <0.5 0.6
Fortuna 0.6 <0.5
Glenn 0.7 1.8 3.2 0.8 0.6 0.7 <0.5 <0.5 2.0 0.6 <0.5 0.6
Helios <0.5 <0.5 2.3 <0.5 <0.5 0.6
Jenna 1.6 4.2 4.0 1.0 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Kaffé§ <0.5 <0.5 4.1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Kyle§ 1.0 <0.5
McKenzie 1.5 1.5 1.9 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 2.2 <0.5 <0.5 0.5
Magog 0.7 1.7 1.2 1.0 <0.5 1.0 <0.5 <0.5 3.1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Oklee 1.1 4.1 1.6 0.9 0.8 1.1 0.7 0.5 3.8 <0.5 <0.5 0.9
RB07 0.7 3.6 2.5 0.5 0.7 1.3 0.6 <0.5 2.4 0.5 <0.5 0.6
Red Fife 1.5 1.5 1.9 1.5 1.1 1.2 <0.5 <0.5 2.1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Roblin 0.5 3.8 0.8 0.5 0.8 1.3 0.5 0.6 2.3 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Sabin <0.5 1.1 <0.5 <0.5 0.5 1.3 <0.5 <0.5 1.6 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Steele 1.5 3.9 <0.5 2.7 1.1 1.4 0.6 <0.5 3.4 <0.5 <0.5 1.3
Superb 4.2 5.1 2.6 2.0 0.7 <0.5 4.9 <0.5 <0.5 2.1
Sy Soren <0.5 <0.5
Tom 0.7 2.4 0.7 0.7 <0.5 1.7 <0.5 <0.5 1.7 <0.5 <0.5 0.8
Ulen 1.7 4.4 2.2 2.1 0.9 1.4 0.7 <0.5 3.1 <0.5 <0.5 0.7
AC Walton 1.4 1.7 3.3 1.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 2.1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Site Average 1.1 2.8 1.6 1.2 0.8 1.2 <0.5 <0.5 2.8 <0.5 <0.5 0.7

† For all measures, bolded values are not significantly different from the highest value, which is indicated with an underline.
 Variety is not a hard red type.
§ No significant difference among varieties.  

DISCUSSION

Wheat grain sold for bread flour can receive up to twice the pay price as grain sold for livestock feed in New England, but the grain must meet higher quality standards.  Therefore, when choosing which varieties to plant, it is important to consider their potential to produce grain with acceptable protein, test weight, falling number, and DON levels, as well as their ability to produce high yields.

Overall the 2012 growing season was a good one for spring cereals.   A very mild winter with little snow pack and a drier and warmer than normal March allowed for early planting of the trials.  Wet weather in June (before and during flowering) did lead to DON levels above 1 ppm in some cases in Maine, but July and early August were drier than normal allowing for excellent conditions during ripening.  Due to early planting, weeds were not a problem at any location.  The Alburgh, Old Town, and Willsboro sites produced yields well above the historical average.  Average protein levels were adequate at all sites.

There is often a tradeoff between yield potential and protein potential.  For instance, in Maine in 2012, Faller and AC Walton had impressive yields but also the lowest protein levels.  In contrast, Glenn, Roblin, and AC Barrie produced lower than average yields but had among the highest protein levels.  Over the three years that these variety trials have been conducted, a number of varieties have produced average or above-average yields and also maintained adequate protein levels.  These include AC Superb, Oklee, Jenna, RB07, Tom, and the experimental variety 07SW04 (to be released in 2013 under the name “Yorkton”).

Fusarium head blight can be a major issue in our region.  Options for managing the disease in organic systems are limited and include rotating with non-grain crops (i.e., avoid planting wheat after wheat, corn, barley, and rye), burying any disease-carrying debris, and choosing less susceptible varieties.  While none of the current wheat varieties is resistant to Fusarium head blight, some have better tolerance to the disease than others. In trials conducted in North Dakota and Minnesota where disease and moisture levels were controlled to maximize disease incidence, Brick, Glenn, and RB07 had the best tolerance to Fusarium.  In our trials, varieties that have most consistently shown below average DON levels over the last three years include AC Barrie, Faller, Glenn, Magog, Sabin, and Tom.  As well, Brick and the experimental variety 07SW04 had below average DON levels over the two years they were tested.  Choosing a more tolerant variety may provide some protection against Fusarium, but conditions at flowering drive infection and may still result in high DON levels.  One management strategy is to plant two or three tolerant varieties that have different maturity dates, and hence flowering dates, to hedge against wet weather at flowering.

It may be helpful to compare these ME, VT, and NY results with results from variety trails conducted in other regions.  Ultimately, though, it is important to evaluate data from test sites that are similar to your farm and region when deciding which varieties to grow.

Full reports of the 2010 and 2011 results are available as separate publications available at: http://umaine.edu/localwheat/research/variety-trials/

 

Spring wheat trial at Old Town, ME site

Acknowledgements: The UVM Extension Crops and Soils Team would like to thank the Borderview Research Farm and the Willsboro Research Farm for their generous help with the trials, as well as acknowledge the USDA OREI grants program for their financial support. We would also like to thank Katie Blair, Chantel Cline, and Savanna Kittell-Mitchell for their assistance with data collection and entry. This information is presented with the understanding that no product discrimination is intended and neither endorsement of any product mentioned, nor criticism of unnamed products, is implied. The University of Maine Sustainable Agriculture team thanks Jeff Bragg of Rainbow Valley Farm for providing his assistance and field in Sidney, the Univeristy of Maine Rogers Research Farm, and Joe Cannon, Chris Illingworth, Maggie Lynn, Jess Richards, Erin Roche, and Aaron Englander for their technical help. Information in this publication is provided purely for educational purposes. No responsibility is assumed for any problems associated with the use of products or services mentioned. No endorsement of products or companies is intended, nor is criticism of unnamed products or companies implied.

This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Organic Research and Extension Initiative under Award No. 2009- 01366, “Enhancing farmers’ capacity to produce high quality organic bread wheat.”

Published and distributed in furtherance of Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914, by the University of Maine Cooperative Extension, the Land Grant University of the state of Maine and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. Cooperative Extension and other agencies of the U.S.D.A. provide equal opportunities in programs and employment. Call 800-287-0271 or TDD 800-287-8957 (in Maine), or 207-581-3188, for information on publications and program offerings from University of Maine Cooperative Extension, or visit extension.umaine.edu.


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