Posts Tagged ‘spotted wing drosophila’

Fruit Growers Alert 8/16/13: Spotted Wing Drosophila Spreading, Counts Increasing

Monday, August 19th, 2013

Fruit Growers Alert – August 16, 2013

For full page print version, please see link at the bottom. Click on photos to enlarge.

SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA SPREADING, COUNTS INCREASING

Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap

SWD Trap, photo by David Handley

Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) flies were captured in traps in Bowdoinham, Cape Elizabeth, Dresden, Gray, Limington, Livermore Falls, Mechanic Falls, Monmouth, New Gloucester, Springvale, Wales, Warren and Wells.  Trap captures varied this week from just one fly to over 100, with most catching fewer than 10.  There are now just a few sites where we haven’t yet caught any flies.   The Bowdoinham site again had far more flies than any other location (135) although this was only about ½ the number we caught at the same location last week. The other sites with higher numbers were Wells (21) and Wales (18).  Some of this variation may just be a matter of where the traps are placed at each site.  Ideally, growers should set up their own traps to monitor for SWD, and learn to distinguish it from other species that will get into the trap.

Male and Female Spotted Wing Drosophila

Male and Female Spotted Wing Drosophila, image by Alan Kenage, Capital Press

While there is no valid threshold for spotted wing drosophila in berry fields (most buyers have zero tolerance), growers should initiate a regular insecticide spray program once SWD is captured in your area and you have ripe or nearly ripe fruit in your fields. Recommended insecticide   products that provide good control of drosophila on berries include Delegate®, Brigade®, Bifenture®, Danitol®, Mustang Max®, malathion and Assail®.  Effectiveness of these products can range from three to seven days.  Repeated applications throughout the harvest season may be required to prevent larvae from infesting the fruit.  Please check product labels for rates, post-harvest intervals and safety precautions. Keeping the fields clean of over-ripe and rotten fruit can also help reduce the incidence of this insect.

David T. Handley
Vegetable & Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                       Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME  04259        Orono, ME  04473
207.933.2100                          1.800.287.0279

IPM Web Pages:
http://extension.umaine.edu/ipm/
http://www.pestwatch.psu.edu/sweet_corn.htm
http://www.umass.edu/umext/ipm/

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

Fruit Growers Alert 8/9/13: Spotted Wing Drosophila Populations Jump in Coastal Site

Monday, August 12th, 2013

Fruit Growers alert – August 9, 2013

For full page print version, please see link at the bottom. Click on photos to enlarge.

SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA POPULATIONS JUMP IN COASTAL SITE

Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) flies were captured in traps in Wells, Cape Elizabeth, Limington, New Gloucester, Gray, Monmouth, Bowdoinham and Corinna. Most traps had one to three flies in them, and there are still a few locations where we have not caught any flies. The exception was the Bowdoinham site, which had over 200 flies for the week. We had no data from our Dresden site, which is close by, this week (broken trap) but the count was higher there last week as well.

There have been more reports of maggots in blueberry fruit this week, but these are the larvae of was blueberry fruit fly (aka blueberry maggot), not spotted wing drosophila, as we reported last week. Blueberry maggot populations of this insect have been very high this season, and any plantings that were not sprayed as fruit began to ripen are susceptible to infestation. For a good fact sheet on this pest visit our web site. If you are finding larvae in harvested blueberry fruit, there is a fact sheet from North Carolina State University website to help identify which insect is causing the problem.

Spotted Wing Drosophila Larva in Blackberry

SWD Larvae in Blackberry, photo by David Handley

Spotted Wing Drosophila Maggot in Raspberry

SWD Larva in Raspberry, photo by David Handley

There is no valid threshold for spotted wing drosophila in berry fields. If SWD has been captured in your area and you have ripe or nearly ripe fruit in your fields, the crop should be protected with a recommended insecticide. Products that provide good control of drosophila on berries include Delegate®, Brigade®, Bifenture®, Danitol®, Mustang Max®, malathion and Assail®. Effectiveness of these products can range from three to seven days. Repeated applications throughout the harvest season may be required to prevent larvae from infesting the fruit. Please check product labels for rates, post-harvest intervals and safety precautions. Keeping the fields clean of over-ripe and rotten fruit can also help reduce the incidence of this insect.

David T. Handley
Vegetable & Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                       Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME  04259        Orono, ME  04473
207.933.2100                          1.800.287.0279

IPM Web Pages:
http://extension.umaine.edu/ipm/
http://www.pestwatch.psu.edu/sweet_corn.htm
http://www.umass.edu/umext/ipm/

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

Fruit Growers Alert 8/2/13: Spotted Wing Drosophila Populations Remain Low

Friday, August 2nd, 2013

Fruit Growers Alert – August 2, 2013

For full page print version, please see link at the bottom. Click on photo to enlarge.

SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA POPULATIONS REMAIN LOW

Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) flies were captured in traps in Wells, Dresden, New Gloucester and Bowdoinham this week. Trap captures continue to be fairly low, with many locations not yet recording any flies.  We’re still seeing higher numbers near the coast and in the south, with nine flies caught in Dresden, six in New Gloucester and three in both Wells and Bowdoinham.

We have had several reports of maggots in blueberry fruit this week, but in each case the pest was blueberry fruit fly (aka blueberry maggot), not spotted wing drosophila.  Blueberry maggot is a common pest of blueberries in Maine and populations of this insect have been very high this season, according to Frank Drummond, Professor of Entomology at the University of Maine.

For a good fact sheet on this pest, visit our web site. If you are finding larvae in harvested blueberry fruit, there is a fact sheet on the North Carolina State University website to help identify which insect is causing the problem.

There is no valid threshold for spotted wing drosophila in berry fields.  At this point we believe that if any SWD have been captured in your area and you have ripe or nearly ripe fruit in your fields, the crop should be protected with a recommended insecticide.

Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap with One Male SWD Circled

Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap, Male SWD Circled, photo by Kaytlin Woodman

Spotted wing drosophila poses the greatest threat to raspberries, blackberries, blueberries and other soft fruit that is beginning to ripen (elderberries, peaches, nectarines, etc.). Products that provide good control of drosophila on berries include Delegate®, Brigade®, Bifenture®, Danitol®, Mustang Max®, malathion and Assail®. Research carried out at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station suggests that adding table sugar to group 4A insecticides such as Assail®, may improve their effectiveness. The recommended rate would be 1-2 lbs. sugar per 100 gallons of spray. Effectiveness of these products can range from three to seven days.  Repeated applications throughout the harvest season will likely be required to prevent larvae from infesting the fruit.  Please check product labels for rates, post-harvest intervals and safety precautions. Keeping the fields clean of over-ripe and rotten fruit can also help reduce the incidence of this insect.

For information on identifying spotted wing drosophila and making your own monitoring traps, visit the Michigan State University’s Spotted Wing Drosophila website.  There is also a good fact sheet series on Management of Spotted Wing Drosophila from Penn State on their website.

David T. Handley
Vegetable & Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                       Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME  04259        Orono, ME  04473
207.933.2100                          1.800.287.0279

IPM Web Pages:
http://extension.umaine.edu/ipm/
http://www.pestwatch.psu.edu/sweet_corn.htm
http://www.umass.edu/umext/ipm/

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

Fruit Growers Alert 7/26/13: Spotted Wing Drosophila Activity Spreading

Monday, July 29th, 2013

Fruit Growers Alert – July 26, 2013

For full page print version, please see link at the bottom. Click on photos to enlarge.

SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA ACTIVITY SPREADING

Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap

SWD Trap, photo by David Handley

Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) flies were captured in traps in Wells, Warren, Dresden, New Gloucester, Monmouth, Union and Lincolnville this week. These trap captures indicate that SWD has become active in more regions of the state. Most trap captures have been very low to date (1 to 3 flies), but some sites near the coast have seen higher numbers this week. A trap in Dresden caught seven flies. One trap in Warren caught 13 flies while another caught 84.  SWD populations are also rising in the other New England states this week, according to reports from Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Connecticut.

There is no valid threshold for spotted wing drosophila in berry fields. At this point we believe that if any SWD have been captured in your area and you have ripe or nearly ripe fruit in your fields, the crop should be protected with a recommended insecticide.

Male and Female Spotted Wing Drosophila Flies

Male (left) and Female (right) Spotted Wing Drosophila, photo by Griffin Dill. Actual size: 2-3 mm.

Spotted wing drosophila poses the greatest threat to raspberries, blackberries, blueberries and other soft fruit that is beginning to ripen (elderberries, peaches nectarines, etc.). Products that provide good control of drosophila on berries include Delegate®, Brigade®, Bifenture®, Danitol®, Mustang Max®, malathion and Assail®. Research carried out at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station suggests that adding table sugar to group 4A insecticides such as Assail®, may improve their effectiveness. The recommended rate would be 1-2 lb. sugar per 100 gallons of spray. Effectiveness of these products can range from three to seven days. Repeated applications throughout the harvest season will likely be required to prevent larvae from infesting the fruit. Please check product labels for rates, post-harvest intervals and safety precautions. Keeping the fields clean of over-ripe and rotten fruit can also help reduce the incidence of this insect.

For information on identifying spotted wing drosophila and making your own monitoring traps, visit the Michigan State University’s Spotted Wing Drosophila website. There is also a good fact sheet series on Management of Spotted Wing Drosophila from Penn State on their website.

Highmoor Farm Fruit and Vegetable Growers Field Day July 31, 2013
Join us for the Highmoor Farm Field Day and Summer Tour to be held on Wednesday, July 31, starting at 9:00 a.m. Please join us for the program, farm tours and lunch. For more information and to register online, visit the Field Day website.

David T. Handley
Vegetable & Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                       Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME  04259        Orono, ME  04473
207.933.2100                          1.800.287.0279

IPM Web Pages:
http://extension.umaine.edu/ipm/
http://www.pestwatch.psu.edu/sweet_corn.htm
http://www.umass.edu/umext/ipm/

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

Fruit Growers Alert 7/19/13: Spotted Wing Drosophila Counts are Rising

Friday, July 19th, 2013

Fruit Growers Alert – July 19, 2013

For full page print version, please see link at the bottom. Click on photos to enlarge.

SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA COUNTS ARE RISING

Spotted wing drosophila flies were captured in traps in Warren (6 males, 3 females) and Wells (2 females) this week in a strawberry field and raspberry field, respectively. These trap captures indicate that this insect is becoming more active in Maine. Last week we had low numbers caught in wild blueberry fields in Winterport, Whitefield and Dresden. Although the numbers are still quite low, and don’t pose an immediate threat to berry crops, populations are expected to increase in the coming weeks to damaging levels.  Research and Extension staff in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and New York are all reporting increasing numbers of spotted wing drosophila in traps over the past week, and one grower in Massachusetts claims to have found larvae in recently harvested fruit, although this is unconfirmed.

Spotted Wing Drosophila Larvae in Raspberry

Spotted Wing Drosophila Larvae in Raspberry, photo by David Handley

Spotted Wing Drosophila Larvae in Blueberry

Spotted Wing Drosophila Larvae in Blueberry, photo by David Handley

At this point in the season, spotted wing drosophila will pose the greatest threat to raspberries, blueberries and any other soft fruit that is beginning to ripen. They are able to lay eggs in fruit as soon as it starts to color. Spotted wing drosophila can complete a generation in less than two weeks and, with each adult female laying hundreds of eggs, populations can explode rapidly when conditions are right. Last year populations did not reach damaging levels until late August, but weather conditions can alter how quickly the flies will build up. Frequently repeated insecticide sprays (1 to 3 times per week) may be needed to prevent infestations once the insect is present in a field. Growers should now be on the alert and look for fruit flies on their fruit and symptoms of premature fruit decay. Products that provide good control of drosophila on berries include Delegate®, Brigade®, Bifenture®, Danitol®, Mustang Max®, malathion and Assail®. Research carried out at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station suggests that adding table sugar to group 4A insecticides such as Assail®, may improve their effectiveness. The recommended rate would be 1-2 lbs. sugar per 100 gallons of spray. Please check product labels for rates, post-harvest intervals and safety precautions. Keeping the fields clean of over-ripe and rotten fruit can also help reduce the incidence of this insect. For information on identifying spotted wing drosophila and making your own monitoring traps, visit the Michigan State University’s Spotted Wing Drosophila website.  There is also a good fact sheet series on Management of Spotted Wing Drosophila from Penn State on their website.

Highmoor Farm Field Day
Please join us for the Highmoor Farm Field Day and Summer Tour to be held on Wednesday, July 31, starting at 9:00 a.m. Growers will have an opportunity to tour the fruit and vegetable research plots at the farm, part of the Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station, and hear Extension specialists and guest speakers discuss current research on apples, grapes and vegetables. Maine State Legislators will also be on hand to offer updates on programs and legislation effecting farming in Maine.  Please join us for the program, farm tours and lunch. Visit the Field Day website for more information.

David T. Handley
Vegetable & Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                       Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME  04259         Orono, ME  04473
207.933.2100                          1.800.287.0279

IPM Web Pages:
http://extension.umaine.edu/ipm/
http://www.pestwatch.psu.edu/sweet_corn.htm
http://www.umass.edu/umext/ipm/

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

Fruit Growers Alert 7/9/13: Spotted Wing Drosophila Has Been Found In Maine!

Wednesday, July 10th, 2013
Male and Female Spotted Wing Drosophila Flies

Male (left) and Female (right) Spotted Wing Drosophila, photo by Griffin Dill. Actual size: 2-3 mm.

Fruit Growers Alert – July 9, 2013

For full page print version, please see link at the bottom. Click on photos to enlarge.

SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA HAS BEEN FOUND IN MAINE!

David Handley, Vegetable & Small Fruit Specialist; James Dill, Pest Management Specialist; Frank Drummond, Professor of Insect Ecology/Entomology

Male spotted wing drosophila flies were captured in traps in Dresden and Whitefield on July 3rd in wild blueberry fields. On Saturday, July 6th, a male fly was caught in a Winterport blueberry field. We have traps set out in raspberry and highbush blueberry fields in southern and central Maine, but have not yet captured any spotted wing drosophila in those fields.    However, the presence of spotted wing drosophila in the wild blueberry fields indicates that this insect is now becoming active in the state, slightly earlier than our first captures last year.  Research and Extension staff in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and New York have all reported captures of spotted wing drosophila over the past two weeks, although in all cases the numbers have been low.

Fall Raspberries

Photo by David Handley

Spotted Wing Drosophila Emerging from Fall Raspberries

Photo by James Dill

Raspberries before and after infestation, 48 hours at room temperature after picked.

Spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) is a new pest which is a concern for raspberries blueberries and day neutral strawberries, as well as many other soft fruits.  This insect is a small fruit fly, similar to the type that fly around the over-ripe bananas in your kitchen. However, this species will lay its eggs on fruit before it ripens, resulting in fruit that is contaminated with small white maggots just as it is ready to pick.  As a result, the fruit quickly rots and has no shelf life.  This insect first came into Maine in 2011, and caused significant losses in raspberry and blueberry plantings last year.  Spotted wing drosophila can complete a generation in less than two weeks, with each adult female laying hundreds of eggs, so populations can explode rapidly when conditions are right.  This makes them very difficult to control, and frequently repeated insecticide sprays (1 to 3 times per week) are often needed to prevent infestations once the insect is present in a field.  It appears that spotted winged drosophila can successfully overwinter here, although it has not been able to build up to damaging levels until late summer. June-bearing strawberries and early ripening varieties of raspberries and blueberries may escape infestation, but later ripening varieties and everbearing types of strawberries and raspberries will likely become infested if they are not protected. Now that spotted wing drosophila has been confirmed in Maine, growers should be on the alert and look for fruit flies on their fruit and symptoms of premature fruit decay.   Products that provide good control of drosophila on berries include Delegate®, Brigade®, Bifenture®, Danitol®, Mustang Max®, malathion and Assail®. Research carried out at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station suggests that adding table sugar to group 4A insecticides such as Assail®, may improve their effectiveness. The recommended rate would be 1-2 lb. sugar per 100 gallons of spray.   Please check product labels for rates, post-harvest intervals and safety precautions. Keeping the fields clean of over-ripe and rotten fruit can also help reduce the incidence of this insect.  For information on identifying spotted wing drosophila and making your own monitoring traps, visit the Michigan State University’s Spotted Wing Drosophila website.  There is also a good fact sheet series on management of spotted wing drosophila on the Penn State Extension website.

David T. Handley
Vegetable & Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                       Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME  04259         Orono, ME  04473
207.933.2100                          1.800.287.0279

IPM Web Pages:
http://extension.umaine.edu/ipm/
http://www.pestwatch.psu.edu/sweet_corn.htm
http://www.umass.edu/umext/ipm/

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

Press Herald Interviews Handley, Kirby on Garden Insects

Monday, June 24th, 2013

The Portland Press Herald spoke with David Handley, a vegetable and small-fruit specialist with the University of Maine Cooperative Extension in Monmouth, and Clay Kirby, an insect diagnostician with the UMaine Cooperative Extension in Orono, about bugs in the garden. The pair spoke about this season’s likely pests.

UMaine Extension Pest Specialists Find Spotted Wing Drosophila Problematic in State

Friday, December 14th, 2012

University of Maine Cooperative Extension pest management specialists tracking the invasion of the crop-damaging spotted wing drosophila fruit fly in Maine report that trapping results and surveys indicate that the pest has already become established and problematic in most of the state.

UMaine Extension experts David Handley, a vegetable and small fruit specialist at Highmoor Farm in Monmouth, and James Dill, a pest management specialist in Orono, have been setting and checking flytraps statewide to catch the fruit flies and assess their incidence. They also are analyzing survey data from farmers who are assisting with the assessment.

“We were still catching high numbers of fruit flies into November, but the numbers have dropped pretty steeply over the past two weeks, probably due to the colder temperatures and lack of food,” says Handley. “Any farm we set a trap at, we caught these flies, often in very high numbers — thousands — which is pretty impressive when you consider that they first arrived in Maine last fall.”

Handley and Dill had traps set up at berry farms from Wells to Orono, and Frank Drummond, professor of entomology at the University of Maine, had numerous traps in wild blueberry fields in the Down East region.

Most fruit and berry growers noticed fruit flies on their crops, especially later in the summer, but most did not see high levels of damage from the larvae if they controlled the adults. Where the adults were not controlled, most of the late season fruit contained larvae, causing it to rot prematurely.

The spotted wing drosophila originated in Asia and traveled in fruit and vegetable imports to California. In the past three years, the invasive pest has spread up and down both coasts and into the Midwest. The small flies resemble common fruit flies except for a saw-like appendage on the female’s ovipositor used to bore into the soft skin of fruits like blueberries and raspberries to lay eggs. The white larvae feed on the fruit from the inside, destroying it in the process. Common fruit flies must wait until fruit gets overripe before they can lay eggs in it.

Maine growers and agricultural scientists fear the invasion of the spotted wing drosophila could devastate soft fruit crops, particularly if growers are trying to avoid chemical pesticides to control insects. So far, frequent applications of pesticides appear to be the only effective way to control the tiny flies, according to Dill.

“The good news is that we have pesticides that will control them pretty well, including some materials that are available for organic farmers,” he says. “The bad news is that frequent applications are needed because of the vast numbers of flies that are continually invading the crop.”

Contact: George Manlove, 207.581.3756

Spotted Wing Drosophila 2012 Season Summary for Maine Berry Growers

Monday, December 3rd, 2012

For full page print version, please see link at the bottom.  Click on photos to enlarge.

David Handley, Vegetable & Small Fruit Specialist; James Dill, Pest Management Specialist; Kaytlin Woodman, Technician, University of Maine Cooperative Extension

In the fall of 2011 we captured spotted wing drosophila flies for the first time in Maine.  Based on crop damage experienced by southern growers in 2010 and 2011, we knew that this insect posed a serious threat to most of the berry crops we grow here.  As part of the University of Maine Cooperative Extension Pest Management Program, we set up drosophila traps in berry fields around the southern, central and coastal regions of the state.  The traps were simply plastic cups with lids mounted on stakes with 16, 1/8” holes punched under the rim to allow the flies access.  Four ounces of bait (a mixture of cider vinegar, white grape juice and alcohol) was poured into each trap.  We placed traps both within the crops and in the wooded areas near the crops, knowing the insect prefers humid, shaded areas.  We emptied the traps weekly and restocked them with fresh bait.  We were hoping the traps would show us when this new pest would start emerging in Maine, and how rapidly populations would build to damaging levels.

The first spotted wing drosophila were caught in Limington on July 13.  By the following week, we had trapped drosophila flies in Springvale, New Gloucester, Poland Spring, Mechanic Falls, Wales, Litchfield, Fayette, Thorndike and Warren.  By August 13, we had captured flies at all of our monitoring locations, adding Buxton, Bowdoinham, Dresden, Turner, Farmington, and Fayette to the list.  During the same week, traps in wild blueberry fields in Hancock and Washington counties were also catching the flies.  In late August trap counts rose dramatically at most locations.  Raspberry and blueberry fruit infested with the small white larvae were being reported, and we received numerous calls about soft, rotting fruit.  Trap counts continued to rise through mid-September, with catches in some locations exceeding 2,000 flies per week. At this point flies were readily visible around ripe fruit in many fields and larvae were found infesting most of the fruit in any plantings that had not been sprayed.  Populations were highest in the southernmost and coastal regions, but relatively high numbers of flies were caught in nearly all locations at some point in the season.

Growers who were using insecticides to control spotted wing drosophila initially found that weekly sprays appeared to provide adequate control.  However, as fly populations expanded, growers found that twice weekly sprays were needed to keep larvae out of the fruit.  Growers were using Entrust®, Delegate®, Brigade®, Mustang Max®, and/or malathion insecticides, and most found that these products usually offered adequate control if applied on a frequent basis.  Some growers who did not apply pesticides reported total crop loss following the arrival of spotted wing drosophila in their fields.

Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap Captures in Maine, 2012

Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap Captures in Maine, 2012

Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap Captures in Maine 2012 Data (Excel)

Spotted wing drosophila trap catches remained relatively high throughout the remainder of the season, with a slight dip in late September, which may correlate with a dry spell (we are still analyzing weather data).  In fact, some of the highest trap catches occurred late in the season, in early November, well after most of the crops had been harvested or lost to frost.  The lack of food may have made the traps more attractive, accounting for the increased catch, but this still indicates that high numbers of flies appear to survive long after killing frosts have occurred.  By the end of November, populations finally dropped significantly, suggesting that the flies were now entering the over-wintering stage.

This species over-winters as adults, and research suggests that they should emerge early in the spring to seek out food and begin breeding and laying eggs.  It is thought that the over-wintering survival rate will be relatively low here, but enough should survive to cause similar, if not greater, problems in 2013, given that they will be starting in higher numbers and be more widely dispersed than they were in 2012.

Thus, berry growers should anticipate needing to manage drosophila for the 2013 season.  Based on this year’s data and records from other states, we believe it will be unlikely to significantly infest crops until relatively late in the season when populations reach damaging levels (this year early to mid-August).  Therefore, earlier ripening crops such as June-bearing strawberries should not be significantly impacted, but later ripening crops such as late summer and fall fruiting raspberries, later varieties of blueberries and fall strawberries will need to be protected as soon as fruit begin to ripen.  We plan to again monitor drosophila populations in Maine in 2013, and carry out research on improving our trapping strategies to provide an early warning system in the future.

If you have not yet filled out a grower survey of how spotted wing drosophila impacted your crops this year, click here.  Your input will greatly help us develop our research and educational efforts for the future.  There is a very good fact sheet series on spotted wing drosophila from the Pennsylvania State University, and we have some free copies available.  Contact Pam St. Peter at 207.933.2100 or pamela.stpeter@maine.edu.  You can also download a free copy at their website.

David T. Handley
Vegetable & Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                       Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                              491 College Ave
Monmouth, ME  04259        Orono, ME  04473
207.933.2100                        1.800.287.0279

IPM Web Pages:
http://extension.umaine.edu/ipm/
http://www.pestwatch.psu.edu/
http://www.umass.edu/umext/ipm/

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information.  No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients.  Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions.  Users of these products assume all associated risks.


Spotted Wing Drosophila Update for Maine Fruit Growers – August 24, 2012

Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap with One Male SWD Circled

Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap, Male SWD Circled, photo by Kaytlin Woodman

Over the last week and a half, spotted wing drosophila numbers in our traps have increased significantly.  We are now finding both male and female flies in the highest numbers of the season.  In addition, we have found drosophila maggots infesting both highbush blueberry and raspberry fruit this week and have been getting reports from growers around the state of infested fruit.  Some farms have closed berry sales for the season as harvest is coming to an end, and the few fruit remaining will not be worth the extra effort of repeated insecticide sprays to rescue them.  For those with late fruit crops still to harvest, protection will now be necessary to prevent infestation by spotted wing drosophila.  Up to this point weekly applications of an allowed insecticide have been adequate, but reports from the field suggest that more frequent applications will now be necessary to keep fruit free from maggots.  Growers in southern states have found that a three to five-day spray schedule was needed to prevent infestation.

Spotted Wing Drosophila Maggot in Blueberry

Spotted Wing Drosophila Larva in Blueberry, photo by David Handley

Maine Crisis Exemption Label for Gowan Malathion 8 Flowable® to Control Spotted Wing Drosophila on Blueberries:
There are just a few more days left to utilize the  Section 18 Crisis Exemption granted by the EPA for the use of Gowan Malathion 8 Flowable® at a higher rate than the federal label allows, to provide better control of spotted wing drosophila on blueberries.  This label will allow a rate of 2.0 to 2.5 pt/acre per application, with a maximum of two applications per field.  This exemption rate can only be used from August 13 through August 28 this year.  Growers must have a copy of the exemption label in their possession to use this rate, and must fill out a use survey at the end of the season.  Exemption Labels are available through pesticide dealers, and the Board of Pesticides Control (287.7544).

Check product labels for which crops are registered for the product, application limits, rates, post-harvest intervals and safety precautions.  Keeping the fields clean of over-ripe and rotten fruit can also help reduce the incidence of this insect.

We have available a very good series of new fact sheets from Penn State Extension regarding spotted wing drosophila.  If you would like copies please e-mail Pam St. Peter at pamela.stpeter@maine.edu, or call Pam at 207.933.2100.

David T. Handley
Vegetable & Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                      Pest Management Office
P.O. Box179                          491 College Ave
Monmouth,ME 04259            Orono,ME 04473
207.933.2100                     1.800.287.0279

IPM Web Pages:
http://extension.umaine.edu/ipm/
http://www.pestwatch.psu.edu/
http://www.umass.edu/umext/ipm/

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information.  No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients.  Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions.  Users of these products assume all associated risks.


Spotted Wing Drosophila Update for Maine Fruit Growers – August 15, 2012

Male Spotted Wing Drosophila

Male Spotted Wing Drosophila, photo by Griffin Dill. Actual size: 2-3 mm.

During the past week we have seen a significant increase in spotted wing drosophila coming to our traps in southern Maine.  This suggests that the threat of infestation to any soft fruit or berries remaining in the field is now very high.  We are catching these fruit flies in all of the locations where we have placed traps including Limington, Buxton, Springvale, Bowdoinham, Dresden, New Gloucester, Poland Spring, Mechanic Falls, Turner, Farmington, Wales, Litchfield, Fayette, Thorndike and Warren.  In addition, traps in wild blueberry fields in Hancock and Washington counties have caught flies during the past week.  We are confident that the fly is now widespread and active through most, if not all, of the southern, mid-state and coastal regions of the state.  Also, as the quantity of fruit available is reduced through harvesting, pressure on the remaining fruit will intensify.  We recommend protecting any berry crops or other soft fruit with an appropriate insecticide on a frequent and regular schedule.  With fly catches increasing, more frequent spray applications will probably be needed to achieve adequate control.  The table below lists available materials and the estimated days of residual activity, assuming the product is not washed off by heavy rains.

Characteristics of Insecticides for Spotted Wing Drosophila Control

Trade Name Days to Harvest
Blueberry
Days of Residual
Malathion 1 5-7
Mustang Max® 1 7
Brigade® 1 7
Delegate® 3 (1 raspberry) 7
Entrust® 3 (0 raspberry) 3-5
PyGanic® 12 hr 2-3

Please check product labels for which crops are registered for the product, application limits, rates, post-harvest intervals and safety precautions.  Keeping the fields clean of over-ripe and rotten fruit can also help reduce the incidence of this insect.

Maine Crisis Exemption Label for Gowan Malathion 8 Flowable® to Control Spotted Wing Drosophila on Blueberries:
Maine has been granted a Section 18 Crisis Exemption by the EPA for the use of Gowan Malathion 8 Flowable® at a higher rate than the federal label allows, to provide better control of spotted wing drosophila on blueberries.  This label will allow a rate of 2.0 to 2.5 pt/acre per application, with a maximum of two applications per field.  The length of this exemption is very short; this rate can only be used from August 13 through August 28 this year.  Growers must have a copy of the exemption label in their possession to use this rate, and must fill out a use survey at the end of the season.  Exemption Labels are available through pesticide dealers, and the Board of Pesticides Control (287.7544).

We have available a very good series of new fact sheets from Penn State Extension regarding spotted wing drosophila.  If you would like copies please e-mail Pam St. Peter at pamela.stpeter@maine.edu, or call Pam at 207.933.2100.

David T. Handley
Vegetable & Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                      Pest Management Office
P.O. Box179                          491 College Ave
Monmouth,ME 04259            Orono,ME 04473
207.933.2100                     1.800.287.0279

IPM Web Pages:
http://extension.umaine.edu/ipm/
http://www.pestwatch.psu.edu/
http://www.umass.edu/umext/ipm/

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information.  No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients.  Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions.  Users of these products assume all associated risks.


Spotted Wing Drosophila Update for Maine Fruit Growers – August 1, 2012

Since our first occurrence of spotted wing drosophila in Limington on July 13, we have now found spotted wing drosophila flies in traps in locations in Springvale, New Gloucester, Poland Spring, Mechanic Falls, Wales, Litchfield, Fayette, Thorndike and Warren.  In the past week additional captures have occurred in Buxton, Bucksport and Franklin, in addition to more captures in the earlier locations.  At this point we assume that the fly is fairly widespread and active through most, if not all, of the southern, mid-state and coastal regions of the state.  We recommend protecting any berry crops or other soft fruit with an appropriate insecticide on a frequent and regular schedule.  At the moment weekly applications appear to be keeping drosophila in check.  However, fly catches in most locations are increasing, so the problem is likely to get worse as the season progresses.  Therefore, more frequent spray schedules will probably be needed to achieve adequate control.

Male and Female Spotted Wing Drosophila Flies

Products that provide good control of Drosophila on berries include spinosad products such as Entrust® and Delegate® (group 5), and pyrethroids such as Brigade®, Mustang Max® and Danitol® (group 3).  Please check product labels for which crops are registered for the product, application limits, rates, post-harvest intervals and safety precautions.  Keeping the fields clean of overripe and rotten fruit can also help reduce the incidence of this insect.

We have recently received a very good series of new fact sheets from Penn State Extension regarding identification, biology, monitoring and management of spotted wing drosophila.  Thanks to a grant from the Northeast IPM Center, we can offer you copies of these fact sheets for free until our supply runs out.  If you would like copies please email Pam St. Peter at pamela.stpeter@maine.edu, or call Pam at 207.933.2100.

David T. Handley
Vegetable & Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                      Pest Management Office
P.O. Box179                          491 College Ave
Monmouth,ME 04259            Orono,ME 04473
207.933.2100                      1.800.287.0279

IPM Web Pages:
http://extension.umaine.edu/ipm/
http://www.pestwatch.psu.edu/
http://www.umass.edu/umext/ipm/

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information.  No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients.  Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions.  Users of these products assume all associated risks.

Spotted Wing Drosophila Management

Trade Name Active Ingredient Preharvest Interval (days)a Effectiveness Length of Residual Activity
Raspberries Blackberries Strawberries Cherries
Pyrethroids and Pyrethrins (IRAC Activity Group 3A)
Brigade bifenthrin 3 3 0 X Excellent 7 days
Danitol fenpropathrin 3b 3b 2b 3b Excellent 7 days
Baythroid beta-cyfluthrin X X X 7b Excellent 7 days
Mustang Max zeta-cypermethrin 1b 1b X 14b Excellent 7 days
PyGanicc pyrethrins 0 0 0 0 Goodd 0-2 days
Spinosyns (IRAC Activity Group 5)
Delegate spinetoram 1b 1b X 7b Excellent 5-7 days
Radiant spinetoram X X 1 X Excellent 5-7 days
Spintor spinosad 1 1 1 7 Excellent 5-7 days
Success spinosad 1b 1b 1 7b Excellent 5-7 days
Entrustc spinosad 1b 1b 1 7b Excellent 5-7 days
Organophosphates (IRAC Activity Group 1B)
Malathion malathion 1 1 3 3 Excellent >7 days
Diazinon diazinon X X 5 21 Excellent >7 days

a.   “X” = the material is not labeled for use on the crop.
b.   2(ee) labels have been issued for use against SWD on this crop.
c.   May be used in organic production.  For PyGanic, the REI is 12 hours even though the PHI is 0 days.
d.   Provides knockdown of nonresistant populations but has little or no residual activity.
From Penn State Extension “Spotted Wing Drosophila, Part 4: Management.”  http://extension.psu.edu/fruit-times/news/2012/spotted-wing-drosophila-fact-sheets-completed-and-on-line.


 

Spotted Wing Drosophila Update for Maine Fruit Growers – July 23, 2012

Male Spotted Wing Drosophila

Male Spotted Wing Drosophila, photo by Griffin Dill. Actual size: 2-3 mm.

The first spotted wing drosophila of the 2012 season was found in a trap in Limington on Friday, July 13.  Since that time, we have found spotted wing drosophila flies in our traps at locations in Springvale, New Gloucester, Poland Spring, Mechanic Falls, Wales, Litchfield, Fayette, Thorndike and Warren.  While we have not yet caught the flies at all of the locations where we are trapping, it would be best to assume that the fly is now fairly widespread and active through much of the state.  Therefore, if you presently have ripening berry crops or other soft fruit, we are recommending protecting them with an appropriate insecticide on a regular basis at this time.  We are catching relatively low numbers of flies at these locations but the numbers have started to increase.  We know that the traps only tell us when the fly is already in the field, and we also know how rapidly the population can explode, so we are recommending preventive measures be taken as soon as possible.

Male and Female Spotted Wing Drosophila Flies

Products that provide good control of drosophila on berries include spinosad products such as Entrust®, Radiant® and Delegate® (group 5), and pyrethroids such as Brigade®, Mustang Max® and Danitol® (group 3).  Please check product labels for which crops are registered for the product, rates, post-harvest intervals and safety precautions.  Keeping the fields clean of over-ripe and rotten fruit can also help reduce the incidence of this insect.

Male and Female Spotted Wing Drosophila

Male and Female Spotted Wing Drosophila, image by Alan Kenage, Capital Press

For information on identifying spotted wing drosophila and making your own monitoring traps, visit the Michigan State University’s Spotted Wing Drosophila website.  There is also a good fact sheet on management of spotted wing drosophila on the Penn State Extension website.

David T. Handley
Vegetable & Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                         Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                            491 College Ave
Monmouth, ME  04259              Orono, ME  04473
207.933.2100                         1.800.287.0279

IPM Web Pages:
http://extension.umaine.edu/ipm/
http://www.pestwatch.psu.edu/
http://www.umass.edu/umext/ipm/

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information.  No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients.  Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions.  Users of these products assume all associated risks.


Fruit Growers Alert: Spotted Wing Drosophila has been found in Maine!  July 13, 2012

The first spotted wing drosophila of the 2012 season was found in a trap in Limington on Friday, July 13.  Three male flies were caught in a trap in the woods adjacent to a raspberry planting.  We haven’t caught flies in other locations yet, but growers should be on alert for indications of fruit flies in their plantings and premature fruit decay.

Spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) is a new pest which is a concern for raspberries, blueberries and day neutral strawberries, as well as many other soft fruits.  This insect is a small fruit fly, similar to the type that flies around the over-ripe bananas in your kitchen.  However, this species will lay its eggs on fruit before it ripens, resulting in fruit that is contaminated with small white maggots just as it is ready to pick.  As a result, the fruit quickly rots and has no shelf life.  This insect recently came into the U.S. from northern Asia, and caused problems with many berry crops up the east coast last year.  It can complete a generation in under two weeks, with each adult female laying hundreds of eggs.  Therefore, millions of flies can be present soon after the introduction of just a few into a field.  This makes them very difficult to control, and frequently repeated insecticide sprays (3 to 5 times per week) may be needed to prevent infestations once the insect is present in a field.  It is likely that spotted winged drosophila can successfully overwinter here, although it may not build up to damaging levels until summer.  We have set out monitoring traps for spotted winged drosophila in fruit plantings around the state to determine the activity of this pest in Maine.  However, these traps are unlikely to provide early warning, i.e. when we find them in a trap they are probably already established in the field.  We will be alerting growers when we find them in Maine.  Now that spotted wing drosophila has been confirmed in a berry planting in southern Maine, growers should be on the alert and look for fruit flies on their fruit and symptoms of premature fruit decay.  Products that provide good control of drosophila on berries include Delegate®, Brigade®, Danitol®, and malathion.  Please check product labels for rates, post-harvest intervals and safety precautions.  Keeping the fields clean of over-ripe and rotten fruit can also help reduce the incidence of this insect.  For information on identifying spotted wing drosophila and making your own monitoring traps, visit the Michigan State University’s Spotted Wing Drosophila website.  There is also a good fact sheet on management of spotted wing drosophila on the Penn State Extension website.

David T. Handley, Ph.D.
Vegetable & Small Fruit Specialist

University of Maine Cooperative Extension
Highmoor Farm
P.O. Box179
Monmouth, ME  04259-0179
Tel. 207.933.2100
Fax 207.933.4647
david.handley@maine.edu

IPM Web Pages:
http://extension.umaine.edu/ipm/
http://www.pestwatch.psu.edu/
http://www.umass.edu/umext/ipm/

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information.  No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients.  Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions.  Users of these products assume all associated risks.

Sweet Corn IPM Newsletter No. 8 – August 1, 2012

Wednesday, August 1st, 2012

Sweet Corn

For full page print version, please see link at the bottom.  Click on photos to enlarge.

CORN EARWORM PRESSURE INCREASES IN SOUTHERN MAINE

European Corn Borer and Fall Armyworm Threat Remains Small

SITUATION
Harvest is still spotty as growers work through the erratic early corn and hope for better uniformity and quality with the main season crop.  Many fields received just enough rain to get a break from irrigation this week.  A little bit of weather coming up from the southeast coast appears to have bumped up local corn earworm populations, so silking corn is likely to need protection, especially in the southern and coastal areas of the state.

European corn borer:  Moth counts were higher in some northern locations this week, requiring protection of silking corn, but remained low in most southern fields.  Charleston, Levant, Palmyra and East Corinth were over the threshold of 5 moths in silking corn.  Feeding injury from larvae in whorl to tassel stage corn remained low in most locations this week, only exceeding the 15% feeding injury threshold in Cape Elizabeth and Poland Spring.

European Corn Borer Moth

European Corn Borer Moth, photo by David Handley

Corn earworm:  A significant increase in moth activity over the past two nights has increased the number of fields needing to protect any fresh silking corn.  A 4-day spray interval was recommended in one Cape Elizabeth location and North Berwick.  A 5-day spray interval was recommended for Biddeford, a second Cape Elizabeth location, Monmouth and New Gloucester.  A 6-day spray interval was recommended for fields in Lewiston,Warren and Wells.  Fields in Dayton, Jefferson, Palmyra, Poland Spring and Sabattus caught single moths, which does not warrant a spray.

Corn Earworm Moth

Corn Earworm Moth, photo by David Handley

Fall armyworm:  Two fall armyworm moths were caught in one Cape Elizabeth location this week.  This is below threshold for silking corn.  No feeding damage was found.

Spotted wing drosophila update:  The numbers and range of the “Suzuki Fruit Fly” continue to increase around the state.  We have found this small fruit fly in traps in Limington, Buxton, Sanford, New Gloucester, Mechanic Falls, Poland Spring, Wales, Litchfield, Fayette, Thorndike, Warren and Bucksport.  This week also saw the first capture of this fly in a wild blueberry field in Franklin.  Berry growers need to be on the alert for fruit flies and symptoms of premature fruit decay.  Have your pickers keep fields free of overripe fruit.  At this point, insecticide sprays every 5-7 days appears to provide adequate control.  More frequent sprays may become necessary as populations increase.  There is a good fact sheet about the management of spotted wing drosophila on the Penn State Extension website.

Male Spotted Wing Drosophila

Male and Female Spotted Wing Drosophila

Male and Female Spotted Wing Drosophila, image by Alan Kenage, Capital Press

Corn rust causes reddish-brown pustules to form on the leaves, stalks and husks, reducing the visual quality of the ears.  We see more of this problem in wet, humid seasons.  Some varieties are resistant.  Severe infections can reduce ear size, especially if they occur prior to tassel.  A fungicide spray for rust is only recommended if the infection occurs prior to tasseling.  Later infections are unlikely to cause enough damage to the crop to justify control measures.  Materials available to control corn rust include Bravo®, Quilt® and maneb/mancozeb.

Rust on Corn

Rust on Corn, photo by David Handley

Sincerely,

David T. Handley
Vegetable & Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                      Pest Management Office
P.O. Box179                          491 College Ave
Monmouth,ME 04259            Orono,ME 04473
207.933.2100                       1.800.287.0279

Sweet Corn IPM Weekly Scouting Summary

 Location CEW Moths ECB Moths FAW Moths % ECB Damage Recommendations / Comments
 Biddeford  7  3  0  4% 5-day spray interval for all silking corn
 Cape Elizabeth I  11  0  2  0% 4-day spray interval for all silking corn
 Cape Elizabeth II  6  0  0  21% 5-day spray interval for all silking corn
 Charleston  0  9  0  1% One spray recommended for ECB on silking corn
 Dayton I  1  1  0  3% No spray recommended
 Dayton II  1  0  0  1% No spray recommended
 Dresden  0  1  0  5% No spray recommended
 East Corinth  0  20  0  0% One spray recommended for ECB on silking corn
 Farmington  0  0  0  2% No spray recommended
 Jefferson  1  0  0  7% No spray recommended
 Levant  0  8  0  6% One spray recommended for ECB on silking corn
 Lewiston  2  1  0  0% 6-day spray interval for all silking corn
 Lewiston II  2  3  0  9% 6-day spray interval for all silking corn
 Monmouth  6  2  0  7% 5-day spray interval for all silking corn
 New Gloucester  5  0  0  2% 5-day spray interval for all silking corn
 North Berwick  8  0  0  1% 4-day spray interval for all silking corn
 Oxford  0  0  0  8% No spray recommended
 Palmyra  1  6  0  5% One spray recommended for ECB feeding
 Poland Spring  1  3  0  30% One spray recommended for ECB feeding
 Sabattus  1  1  0  8% No spray recommended
 Wales  0  0  0  13% No spray recommended
 Warren  3  0  0  7% 6-day spray interval for all silking corn
 Wells I  3  0  0  0% 6-day spray interval for all silking corn
 Wells II  3  0  0  1% 6-day spray interval for all silking corn

CEW: Corn earworm (Only fresh silking corn should be sprayed for this insect.)
ECB:  European corn borer
FAW: Fall armyworm

Corn Earworm Spray Thresholds for Pheromone Traps

 Moths caught per week  Moths caught per night  Spray interval
 0.0 to 1.4  0.0 to 0.2  No spray
 1.5 to 3.5  0.3 to 0.5  Spray every 6 days
 3.6 to 7.0  0.6 to 1.0  Spray every 5 days
 7.1 to 91  1.1 to 13.0  Spray every 4 days
 More than 91  More than 13  Spray every 3 days

Thresholds apply only to corn with exposed fresh silk. Lengthen spray intervals by one day if maximum daily temperature is less than 80°F.

European Corn Borer Thresholds
Whorl stage:  30% or more of plants scouted show injury.
Pre-tassel-silk:  15% or more of plants scouted show injury.
Silk:  5 or more moths caught in pheromone traps in one week.

IPM Web Pages:
http://extension.umaine.edu/ipm/
http://www.pestwatch.psu.edu/sweet_corn.htm
http://www.umass.edu/umext/ipm/

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information.  No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients.  Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions.  Users of these products assume all associated risks.

Published and distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914, by the University of Maine Cooperative Extension, the Land Grant University of the State of Maine and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating.  Cooperative Extension and other agencies of the U.S.D.A. provide equal opportunities in programs and employment.