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Collections - MF 165 ANT 326 and 431 Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy Collection

Number of Interviews: 9

Dates when interviews were conducted: 2010, 2011

Time period covered: twentieth century

Principal interviewers:  various

Finding aides:  none

Access restrictions:  none

Description: This collection consists of  48 undergraduate student research papers prepared for a course titled Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy (ANT 326 and ANT 431), taught by Pauleena MacDougall in the spring semesters of 2010 and 2011 at the University of Maine in Orono. The course examines the interaction of humans with the environment from the perspective of folklore and reviews its impact on public policy at the local, state, federal and international level.  Topics of some of the papers include traditional medicine, basket making, environmental sustainability, energy resources, etc.

3738 Denise Simoneau.  “The Search for Franco-American Herbal Remedies.”  a research paper prepared for ANT 431 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy), spring semester (2011), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono.  Simoneau relates that a simple story from her Franco-American childhood so inspired her imagination that she decided to search for the herbal remedies her Franco-American ancestors used. She discusses the use of folklore, memoirs, and fiction to learn about Franco-American herbal remedies; discusses what the State of Maine is doing in regards to preserving Franco-American traditions; discusses the establishment of Franco-American Day and LD 656 which established a task force to study Franco-Americans in Maine and to find ways to promote and preserve Franco-American heritage.  11 pp

3739 Linette Mailhot.  “Wolves: The Cultural Impact of Their Presence and Removal,” paper prepared for ANT 431 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy), spring semester (2011), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono.  Mailhot discusses what wolves represent and their relationship with human culture; hunting of wolves sometimes a part of tradition; danger of extinction; Tasmanian Wolf; grey wolf; theories for the sudden exodus of wolves from Maine; traditions and legends characterizing wolves passed down by Native Americans; Muskhogean legend; Winnebago tribe creation myth; shift from vengeful, loyal creatures to bloodthirsty, dangerous monsters; werewolves; lycanthropy; possible effects of extinction.  11 pp

3740 Bruce P. Doughty.  “Brown Ash and the Wabanaki People of Maine,” paper prepared for ANT 431 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy), spring semester (2011), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono.  Doughty describes the Wabanaki belief that they were created from the brown ash tree; used today for making baskets; where the brown ash tree grows; how to select a tree that will be good for basket making; steps in processing of the logs; traditional uses for baskets; uses of baskets after contact with Europeans; basket making became a source of income; problems facing the use of brown ash tree include habitat loss, effect of pollution, land owner challenges, invasive species, and tree disease; ash borer beetle; logging; interview with John Banks, Penobscot Nation’s Natural Resources Director; symbolic connection between the brown ash tree and the Wabanaki people.  11 pp

3741 Alesha Coffin.  “At the Local Level,” paper prepared for ANT 431 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy), spring semester (2011), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono.  Coffin discusses Maine’s fishing industry; essential to state’s well being; fishery management; depletion of cod fisheries in the 1990s; tragedy of the commons; each man seeking his own gain will lead to everyone’s downfall; self-destructive over exploitation; problem of over fishing; seafood vital to Maine’s economy; fishing industry folklore, stories, superstitions; Dan Libby, fisherman from Brunswick, Maine; Libby’s Market; following fishing regulations; regulations imposed by the government versus regulations enacted in cooperation with fishermen; difference between regulations in Maine and in other New England states; lack of processing plants; demand for higher catch numbers; declining fish populations; solution to the problem may have to start at the local level. 11 pp

3742 Kayla Cannell.  “Energy vs. Energy, Which One Is Better?” paper prepared for ANT 431 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy), spring semester (2011), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono.  Discusses alternative sources of energy; conservation of energy; solar power; wood pellet stoves; wood pellets; renewable energy industry; high cost of some forms of energy; rising fuel prices; different types of home insulation; gas; propane; Efficiency Maine; wind power; chemical emission rates; carbon dioxide.  12 pp

3743 Chris Ludden.  “Traditional Hunting,” research project for ANT 431 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy), spring semester (2011), taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono.  Discusses why people hunt; as a sport; for food; inter-generational pastime shared between parent and child; method of family bonding; way to impart life lessons; rites of passage; respect for the quarry; ritual; respect for natural environment; Maine state laws and regulations; role in state economy; hunting license; timeline from 1830 to 1998 of events related to hunting laws for white-tailed deer; endangered species; resource management and protection of white-tailed deer; crime of poaching.  9 pp

3744  Caleb Savage. “Medicinal Plants/Herbs Native to the Maine Region.” April 24, 2011. Final draft-research paper for ANT 431 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy), spring semester (2011), taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono.  Includes discussion of the more common medicinal plants found in Maine and their medicinal purposes, including Rugosa Rose (Rosa rugosa), St. John’s Wort, wintergreen/teaberry, great burdock, blueberries, ferns such as common club moss, Christmas fern, and bracken fern, trees such as eastern white pine, eastern hemlock, balsam fir, and trees in the willow family. Discusses the benefits of alternative forms of medicine as well as the cautions which need to be observed; increased interest in alternatives to traditional prescribed drugs.   12 pp

3749  Jennifer Bailey.  “Sweetgrass: Its Importance to Maine Indian Tribes and the Future of Traditional Maine Basketmaking,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono.  Topics covered include the cultural importance of sweetgrass to Native Americans in Maine; smudging; talking circle; use of sweetgrass in rituals and ceremonies; use of sweetgrass in traditional basket making; Passamaquoddy basket weaver Diane Apt harvests and braids sweetgrass; damaging effects of bad harvesting practices and of invasive species; cutting vs. pulling when harvesting blades; purple loosestrife; changes in harvesting needed to make sweetgrass sustainable; Maine Indian Basketmakers Alliance; Tanya Bell represents a new generation of sweetgrass harvesters; need for change to preserve the traditional uses of sweetgrass.  10 pp

3750  Sarah Dow.  Untitled, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include the importance of forest sustainability to the future of logging; father Randy is a carpenter; builds speakers; fewer customers because of bad economy and increase in price of materials; damaging effect to the environment of using gas to transport lumber around the country; tree farming as an alternative to current logging strategies; problems of illegal logging and laws put in place to manage logging; 5 laws in Maine which affect logging: Protection and Improvement of Waters Law, Erosion and Sedimentation Control Law, Natural Resources Protection Act (NRPA), Shoreland Zoning Act (SZA), and Forest Practices Act (FPA); recycling; need for small businesses that work with wood to be preserved.  9 pp

3751  Bryon Hasch.  “Medicinal Plants in Environmental Sustainability Efforts,” April 20, 2010, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include medicinal plants being a way to give us better understanding of nature and its relationship to our health; traditional healers developed appreciation of interactions of nature and of the balance between utilization and destruction; treating illness with plants enables self-treatment; Western medicine uses scientific method and has better understanding of causation of sickness; traditional healers required a lot of knowledge of plant properties and their habitats; in modern times, the Food and Drug Administration has stopped many natural remedies from being on the market; majority of people lack understanding of modern medicine; need to bring back herbal remedies to improve health of people and the environment; resurgence of natural supplements; as use of herbs becomes more widespread, knowledge of them will spread as well; inseparability of plant and product; locals have greater understanding of their environment; cultivation practices need to keep these plants sustainable; spread of medicinal plants more likely in rural environment in New England; growing awareness of herbal remedies and its subsequent benefits.  15 pp

3752  Kara West. “Environmental Sustainability in the Northeast Region of the United States and Canada,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy), spring semester (2009?), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics include Victory Gardens of World Wars I and II; relief gardens of the Great Depression; how these programs came into being; how successful they were; why they were not continued; current economic situation and environmental movements encouraging support for local sustainable farming.  13 pp

Interview with Jeannette Daggett: p. 12-13; Includes illustrations

3753  Alex Hernandez. “Sugaring in Western Maine: Past, Present, and a Very Uncertain Future,” a paper prepared for ANT 431 (Folklore, the Environment and Public Policy, spring 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics include maple sap harvesting in West Minot, Maine; Joni Slattery, co-proprietor of the West Minot Sugar House; Slattery’s farm and Maple Supply Company; maple sugaring as part of the northern New England identity; origins of sap harvesting; Native American folklore; evolution of sap harvesting; sugar shacks; sugaring is family and community based; maple trees; logistics of tree tapping in West Minot; processing sap into syrup; effect of weather patterns on sugaring operations.   11 pp

3754  Brenda Clawson. “Backyard Sustainability: Searching for the Good Life,” April 23, 2010, a paper prepared for ANT 431 (Folklore, the Environment and Public Policy, spring 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include overuse of oil and gas in producing our food; climate change caused by humans and its effect on species; why we need sustainability for our resources; backyard sustainability is when people find ways of becoming self-sufficient; Native Americans had some of the first sustainability concepts in the United States; keeping preservation of nature in mind leads to sustainable gardening; building healthy soil is the first step; next step is planting items that grow in your area; some families sustain themselves off plants and animals grown only on their land; people tend to want healthier food that hasn’t been genetically modified; backyard sustainability needs to be taught to children; backyard sustainability is intended to reduce people’s carbon footprints; how growing our own plants cuts back on global warming.  18 pp

3755  Samuel Lavoie.  “Nature’s Ambassadors: Maine Guides and Environmental Sustainability,” 1 May 2010,  a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include Maine Guides being helpful resources in learning about environmental sustainability; interview with George Lavoie, a Master Maine Guide; difficulty and honor of becoming a Maine Guide; Maine Guides must have extensive knowledge of the wilderness and natural world; Maine Guides promote the idea of leaving the land as is and not causing nature harm; dealing with problems like deforestation; recently Guides have become educators of the global environment; if Maine Guides had stronger influence they could help attain environmental sustainability.  9 pp

3756  Ogheneovo Dibie.  “Environmental Sustainability of Lumbering in Maine,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include importance of forests and woodlands in the environment; they have many benefits including sustainable habitats for species; since the 17th century use of woodlands for resources has been destructive; Maine has a huge resource of forests and can provide a lot for the logging, paper, and mill industries; lumbering in Maine has caused a big toll on the environment; understanding of present practices requires a look at the past; steps taken to reduce environmental damage through lumbering in Maine;  ways to ensure sustainability in Maine’s forests.  10 pp

3757  Elizabeth Joy.  “If I Could Just Milk One More Cow: the Death and Proposed Revival of the Small New England Dairy Farm,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono.  Topics covered include the transformation of dairy farming over the last 60 years; New England lagged behind the rest of the country in adopting new industrialized practices of dairy farming; introduction of huge diesel trucks for transporting milk; modern feeding methods for cows; practices for handling manure; small dairy farms in New England are rapidly disappearing; new technology and market competition caused huge dairy farms to appear and run all the small ones out of business; this change has been supporting the global economy where goods are shipped anywhere; small dairy farms would be better for the New England communities; attempt to bring them back; push to create sustainability in the dairy industry; there needs to be a reduction in the globalization of the industry and the use of resources.  14 pp

3758  Ronald Farwell. Untitled. A paper on conservation of forestry and farming resources prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include theory of the Tragedy of the Commons; responsible use of farmland and forests would benefit the Northeast; interviews with loggers Frank Dowling and David Tremblay and with farmers Charles Hutchinson and father of Ronald Farwell; overuse of forests for resources has been damaging; settlers were wasteful in their logging; experiences with early Maine logging companies; early farms were small and community based; working with farming or logging was often passed down through families; Northeast region’s reliance on these resources; realization of the resources’ importance and people’s destructive habits changed the industries.  10 pp

3759  Jessica Erickson.  “What the Earth Can Teach Us: an Investigation Into the Benefits of Traditional Knowledge of Medicinal Plants,” April 25, 2010, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include knowledge of traditional medicine can benefit modern medical practices; interview with Judy Dow, woman of Abenaki descent living in Essex, Vermont; plants have medicinal as well as nutritional value; environmental effects of pharmaceuticals; comparison of traditional and pharmaceutical treatments for diabetes; traditional plants used to treat cancer; Labrador tea; indigenous people understand way medicinal plants affect their bodies without understanding the science behind it; excessive pollution produced by pharmaceutical industry around the world; need to reduce amount of chemicals introduced into the environment by the pharmaceutical industry.  11 pp

3760  Lisa Haberzettl.  “Wildcrafting in the Northeastern United States: Plant Uses and Harvesting Ethics,” April 2010, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include gathering and utilization of wild plants for medicinal treatments known as wildcrafting; interview with herbalist Sara Speidel; many herbs and medicinal plants can be found in the Maine environment; wildcrafting has been beneficial to the small organic medical industry of Maine; herbalists’ respect for the earth and sustaining resources; some problems have arisen due to over harvesting of some plant species; multiple uses for species like plantain leaves, nettles, mulleins, red clover, and others.  11 pp

3761  Kerry Hanson.  “Wind Power in Maine: the Good, the Bad & the Ugly,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono.  Topics covered include dwindling energy sources and rising energy demand creating market for alternative energy sources; Maine’s topography is a prime location for developing wind power; problems with wind turbines in Vinalhaven; community acceptance of wind turbines in Saco despite lack of wind; wind turbines not producing enough to be worth their cost; wind power’s lack of use due to high support of other energy sources; desire for clean energy is not stronger than desire to keep wind turbines away from Maine residents and scenic areas; not in my backyard.  12 pp

3769  Andrew Bean.  “Medicinal Plants,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include organizations in place to protect medicinal plants from extinction; ways that groups and programs prevent over-harvesting of medicinal plants; over-harvesting harmful to ecosystems and reduces available medicine; examples of species at risk for extinction slippery elm, wild ginseng, golden seal, black cohosh, echinacea, witch hazel, yarrow, mullein, boneset, mallow, cannabis; some medicinal plants native to Maine and others brought by settlers.  13 pp

3770  Nancy Bergerson.  “The Loss and Rebuilding of Culture and Place Among the Abenaki and Wabanaki Tribes,” April 24, 2010, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include the steady decline in population in these tribes; history of the two tribes in New England; effect of European settlement; differences in attitudes about land ownership; settlers’ destructive habits of dealing with the ecosystems of  New England; Abenakis and Wabanakis remaining in New England adopted the settler’s lifestyles, married them and blended in; parents stopped passing on language and traditional teachings or stories to children to protect them; acknowledgment of tribal rights; State of Maine compensated tribes who had land illegally taken; reestablishment of tribes’ cultural identity and homelands; need for more legal recognition.  ii, 11 pp

3771  Alissa Brown.  “Stinson Sardine Factory of Prospect Harbor,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include the closing of the canning factory in April 2010; economic hardship for the area; uses of herring or sardines; how to catch herring; Stinson sardine plant began canning in 1927; bought out by Bumble Bee Foods in 2004; nutrients in sardines; sardines as a delicacy and diet fad; herring at risk for over-harvesting off the coast of Maine; negative effects on Gouldsboro with the closing of the canning factory; positive effects on the environment and food chain with less herring being caught.  10 pp

3772  Melissa Burton.  “Organic,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include organic agriculture and life; interview with organic farmer Donna Sewall; sustainable agriculture; rules and regulations for organic farming; monoculture causing dead zones in large tracts of agricultural land; pros and cons of organic living.  9 pp

3773  Laura Callnan.  “The Traditional Use of Plants for Medicinal Purposes: Why Do We Rely So Heavily on Synthetic Drugs When Nature Has Provided So Many Natural Remedies?” April 4, 2010, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono.  Topics covered include reluctance of current Wabanaki practitioners to discuss medicinal plants; information taken from book by Prins and McBride about Wabanaki’s use of medicinal plants on Mount Desert Island; shamans; spread of disease from European settlers throughout the Wabanaki; understanding of medicinal uses of plants through visions or dreams; belief that power of healing spirit within plants is expressed as a song; each plant has its own song; communication with plants through ceremony; ways plants are taken as medicine; oak sap; pleurisy root milkweed; yellow dock; red root; yarrow; government policies regarding use of plants for medicinal purposes.  9 pp

3774  Christopher Cayer.  “Sustainability of Organic Farming in Maine,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include use of chemicals in farming and its effect on environment and health; organic agriculture’s potential to be environmentally friendly; processes such as biological pest control; lack of organic food grown regardless of its benefits; technique of using natural fertilizers to make healthier soil; MOFGA’s involvement with helping organic farmers in Maine; work being done to try and make organic agriculture able to sustain the world population; organic farming in New England has potential to continue expanding; need to spread knowledge of organic farming; excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere created by industrial agriculture; reduction of these damages by using organic farming.  11 pp

3775  Cody Charrier.  “At the Heart of the Issue,” April 25, 2010, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include role of Governor General in Canadian government; Governor General Michaelle Jean’s seal eating incident in the Arctic; Inuit cultural tradition of seal hunting; Inuits hunt seals for fur and meat; folk story of sea goddess Sedna; Inuit story of first tears; views of animal right’s activists on seal hunting and their attempts to stop it; European Union ban on exporting seal products; Canadian Governor General’s eating of seal and its controversy; Governor General’s side of her story; mixed reactions of Canadians and non-Canadians over this event.  9 pp

3776  Elizabeth Clavette.  “The Logging Industry ‘Past and Present,’” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include resource occupations in Maine such as logging, fishing, and farming; folk tale of Paul Bunyan; history of the logging industry in Maine; technological advances changed the logging industry logging resembled an assembly line; pros and cons of these advancements on the forest ecosystem; damaging effects of clear cutting; cooperation between the Cree living in northern Quebec and the Canadian government; reduction of energy use in the lumber industry would result in benefitting the environment; MOFGA’s Low Impact Forestry project. 13 pp

3777 Amy Cross.  “The Evolution of Place and Virtual Folklore,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono.  Topics covered include volume of internet usage for virtual worlds; variety of virtual communities available online; user created folklore and its impact across the internet; folklore in virtual worlds’ spread through communities; virtual communities’ creation and expansion; personal connections to virtual worlds; The Four Bridges Project (4B), a virtual community; the debate of whether virtual folklore can be considered folklore.  12 pp

Includes illustrations

3778 Ambrosia Duvefelt.  “Lobster Fishing Industry in Maine,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono.    Topics covered include history of the lobster industry; work the state has done to sustain lobster populations; regulations in place to prevent over harvesting of lobsters; costs lobstermen have to pay to stay in the industry; promotion of lobster as a luxury to increase sales and benefit the industry.  7 pp

3779  John Gaylord.  “Medicinal Plants,” April 16, 2010, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include testing and researching of medicinal plants being conducted worldwide; ethnobotanists; United States has decided to do less research because of time and cost involved; many plants and plant compounds used in prescription drugs and medicine; witch hazel; foxglove; opium poppy; many ancient Egyptian and Chinese medicinal practices are still in use today; in history medicinal plant knowledge was passed mostly through oral tradition and was part of folk knowledge; medicinal plants and traditional knowledge of these plants are disappearing; growing demand for herbal remedies; rosy periwinkle; harmful current practices such as clear cutting and their effect on medicinal plant species; United States working on conservation efforts.  13 pp

3780 Leonard Hall. “Folk Music of Maine,” April 22, 2010, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include Maine’s strong history and traditions reflected in its music; two distinct cultures in Maine: inland and coastal; inland culture strongly relies on the lumber industry; expressed in folk music; inland traditions of farming and hunting for sustenance; strong nature of Maine women depicted through folk songs; foresters’ sense of place; coastal culture includes fishermen; their lives portrayed through folk music in Maine; coastal communities have dual sense of place: on land and at sea; both cultures live off the land, endure hardships, and have a strong sense of community; folk music’s benefits in keeping traditions alive for all Mainers.  11 pp

3781 Charlene Hodnett.  “Folklore in the Logging World: Traditions unlike Any Others,” 11 April 2010, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include history and current magnitude of the logging industry; emphasis on physical strength and rugged masculinity of lumberjacks reflected in Maine folklore; tall tales told about real life lumberjacks; Paul Bunyan; unique culture in logging camps; desire to preserve Maine forests in order to preserve the cultural world of lumberjacks; change in the world for lumberjacks brought about by modern technology; modern timber sport and lumberjack competitions bringing in fans; Lumberjack World Championships; traditions of the past are only memories now; difficulty of the past logging culture to survive in today’s society.  11 pp

3782 Sheena Hunter. “Cultural and Environmental Relationships Involving the Penobscot River: How Do We Move Forward?” April 24, 2010, a final paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include the importance of the Penobscot River; Penobscot Indian culture depends on the River; relations between Penobscot Indians and Europeans; pollution of the river and its impact on Penobscot Indian culture; Penobscot River in Penobscot Indian mythology; belief that cleaning of the Penobscot River lacks the priority it needs to preserve Penobscot Indian culture; improvement in the lives of the Penobscot Indians as well as other fishermen would come with the restoration of the Penobscot River; decrease in pollution levels since 1972 due to action of government agencies; need for more action to reduce the pollution to safe levels.  8 pp

3783 Laura Labbe.  “Maple Sugaring,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include harvesting and processing of sap from maple trees to make syrup; Iroquois legend about how maple sugaring first came to be; process used by Native Americans to make maple sugar; improvements by early settlers to the syrup making process; use of sugar shacks or sugar houses for boiling down sap; how to tap maple trees; how to boil the sap; processes and successes of Maine maple farms such as Harris Farm; experiencing Maine maple production on Maine Maple Weekend; high sustainability of the maple producing industry in northern New England.  10 pp

With illustrations

3784 Chloe LaPointe.  “Traditional Folk Medicine and its Place in the Western World,” April 6, 2010, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include alternative remedies being equal to or better than western medicine; placebo effect in modern drug testing; effects of mindset and meditation on the body; transcendental meditation; effectiveness of modern medicine compared to that of herbal remedies; confidence in medicines making them more effective; lack of side effects in herbal remedies; harmful practices of uprooting and moving medicinal plants; negative examples of bindweed and Polytrichum gracile being damaged or moved; positives of combining traditional and conventional medicine.  10 pp

3785 Cody Martel.  “Pharmaceuticals in the Environment and the Response,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include negative effects of disposing of pharmaceuticals and personal care products on the environment; contamination from drug waste harming almost all organisms on the planet; high risk of drug compounds reaching drinking water and food; industrial factories in places such as India dumping vast amounts of pharmaceutical waste into the environment; accumulation of drugs in the environment due to lack of biodegradability; pharmaceuticals should be manufactured in a more environmentally friendly way; waste treatment facilities should be equipped to remove pharmaceuticals; spreading knowledge to people can help promote green pharmaceuticals; folk medicine does not have the harmful waste, but is not as trusted as pharmaceuticals; any medicine that uses plant chemistry will be more sustainable than pharmaceuticals; traditional remedies that were common in Frenchville, Maine prior to the 1970s.  11 pp

3786 Samuel Mayhew. “Environmental Preservation Lives On,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include beginning of harm to the environment in America when settlers arrived; Native Americans practiced environmental preservation; practices and repression of solar technology; Hopi folk tale about the significance of the sun which was considered the creator of all life; modern push to find alternative energy such as solar power; Native Americans approve of use of solar thermal collecting because there are no waste emissions; switch to harmful energy source such as nuclear; problem of harmful nuclear waste; nuclear power plants on the land of Native Americans causing harm and stress to the tribes; modern energy efficiency projects and the search for renewable energy; increased emergence of solar energy and using it to replace nuclear.  11 pp

With illustrations

3787 Travis McAlpine.  “Logging Sustainability Research Paper,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include the history of the logging industry in Maine; mechanization of the logging industry and the changes it brought about; building of dams and roads for power and transportation within the industry; modern practices of sustainability and laws passed to maintain the amount of trees in Maine forests; importance of reforestation; mandate to have licensed forestry professional on the payroll of logging companies; policies and practices that must be upheld to continue sustainability in Maine forests.  6 pp

3788 Emma Morrison.  “Risks and Benefits of the Mainstreaming and Mass Production of Natural and Herbal Medicines,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include history of use of herbal healing; in United States in 1962 Food and Drug Administration required drug companies to prove the effectiveness of their products thus making it more difficult to get them approved; modern drugs usually have one active ingredient; difficult to find one active ingredient in natural and herbal medicines; FDA’s removal of most natural remedies from the market; revival of herbal remedies in the 90’s due to increase in environmental awareness; natural remedies considered dietary supplements rather than medicines; Stevia; problems with mass producing natural medicines; Native Americans shifting to use of modern medicine; Indian Health Service.  10 pp

3789 Jessica Stevens.  “Linking Tourism and Sustainability: How to Move Forward without Destroying the Environment,” April 22, 2010, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics include discussion of environmental concerns; damage that tourism does to the environment; environmental sustainability with forestry and agriculture; Brutland Commission; economic boosters of Maine; relationship of folklore to tourism; tourism business in Raymond, Maine; sustainable tourism us aware and sensitive to cultural and environmental impacts and welcomes the decisions and thoughts of local people; causes of the downfall of environmental sustainability; tourism as a tool in economic development.  11 pp

3790  Heather Marie Salisbury.  “The Seven Sacred Ceremonies of the Cherokee,” a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics include the seven clans of the Cherokee Nation; Trail of Tears; beliefs of the Cherokee; 1811-1812 Ghost Dance; Redbird Smith movement; seven sacred ceremonies held every year; First New Moon of Spring ceremony; Green Corn ceremony; Ripe Corn ceremony; Great New Moon ceremony; Atohuna “friends made” ceremony; Bounding Bush ceremony; Uku Dance ceremony held every seventh year; matrilineal clans.  12 pp

3791 Craig Rumery.  “Adapting Culture To Better the Environment,” April 25, 2010, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics covered include realization of the damage being done to the earth and its resources; work being done by countries like the United States to counteract pollution and poor management of resources; division between people who want to change the way we deal with the environment and those who don’t want change; government brings about change by using education or by using money as a motivatior; pollution built into culture and consumer lifestyle in the United States; people’s attitude toward the environment needs to change for us to make progress in improving it; Native Americans respect the land and its animals; attitudes toward Native Americans in Maine; need for a test case to prove that changing many people’s view of the environment can lead to actual improvements; Native Americans in Maine have stayed relevant and unified; Maine Indian Claims Settlement Act; introduction of Native American history and culture into classrooms; research into genealogy; Native American History Month; wilderness study and appreciation; sharing this knowledge with young students may bring about change in attitudes toward environment.  8, 1 pp

3792 Elyssa Phinney.  Untitled, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics include discussion of  the adaptability of Native Americans; Indian groups in Maine; effects of European contact in Maine; disease and the effect on indigenous people; trading between colonists and Native Americans; use of birch bark baskets in trading with colonists; Micmac; splint baskets; story of the creation of the first Abenaki people; how to make splint baskets; potato baskets and harvesting of potatoes; disappearance of white birch and brown ash  trees; program of basket banks started by Micmac in Aroostook County. 11 pp

3793 Dodie Rogers.  “Basket Making,” April 21, 2010, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Includes discussion of basket making; videos showing the making of baskets; made of ash wood;  cost of making baskets; where to find basket making supplies online; disappearance of ash trees due to emerald ash borer; life cycle, effects, and control of emerald ash borer. 9 pp

With illustrations

3800 Jeremy Allen.  “Lobster Fishing: an Example of Effective Co-Management of a Fishing Industry in Maine,” April 23, 2010, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics include discussion of parametric fishieries management; fishing management of the lobster industry over the last 150 years; technological innovations and legislation; interview with Professor James M. Acheson; flaws in the quota systems implemented in many fishing industries; chaos theory; stock recruitment models; bottom-up management by local fishing communities; history of Maine fishing; double-gauge measurement system; V-notch program; escape vent in lobster traps; small scale community management; conservation plans for lobster fishing; local influence on the fishing industry; taboos and customs in lobster fishing; sustainability of lobster fishing in the future.  11 pp

3801 Makaela Thompson.  “Aroostook County,” April 17, 2010, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono.   Topics covered include the potato industry in Aroostook County; ten steps to growing and farming potatoes; Potato Blossom Festival; importance of regular irrigation for potato crops; national impact of the Maine potato industry; interview with mother who grew up on a potato farm; Aroostook lifestyle developed around potato farms and the potato industry.   4 pp

3802 Noah Winter.  “Traditional Energy in New England,” April 11, 2010, a research paper prepared for ANT 326 (Folklore, the Environment, and Public Policy, spring semester 2010), a course taught by Pauleena MacDougall at the University of Maine in Orono. Topics include discussion of traditional energy in New England; wind power; history of wind power; construction and design of windmills; New England windmills; windmills in modern day; coal; steam engines; impact of steam engines in whaling; modern steam engine alternatives; diesel energy; history of diesel engines; fishing industries; diesel energy today.  11 pp

With illustrations


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