Job Search Assistance - Guide to Resumé Writing
- Resumé Content Areas
- Deciding How to Organize Your Resumé
- Making Your Resumé Unique
- Customize Your Resumé for Different Positions
- Preparing Your Resumé to Send via E-mail
Career Advice Videos on Resumés & Cover Letters
Need to write a resumé?
This guide to resumé writing can help you as you
begin this important task.
A notebook of sample resumés and books on resumé writing are available at the Career Center. We encourage you to spend time reviewing several different samples in order to gather ideas to help you design your own resumé. Resumé review appointments are also available. To schedule an appointment, call 207.581.1359 or stop by our office on the 3rd floor of the Memorial Union.
What Is A Resumé?
A resumé can play a central role in launching your career. It can make the difference in getting a competitive internship or landing that ﬁrst job after college. A resumé is generally a one- or two-page summary of your skills, accomplishments, experiences, and education. When preparing a resumé, you are trying to capture a prospective employer’s interest or attention. After all, the most important function of a resumé is to help you to get an interview. You don’t have to be a skilled writer or honors student to write a great resumé. Just be prepared to write several drafts and follow the suggestions outlined in the following paragraphs. Keep in mind that the time it takes to write a good resumé is time well spent.
As you organize your resumé, be sure to present those items that are most relevant to the employer ﬁrst. Consider what he or she is looking for in a candidate and make it easy for the reader to notice those skills by following the tips below.
- Sell yourself: Your resumé is a one-page advertisement for you. Employers are often eager to see internships, volunteering, school activities and other non-traditional work on entry-level resumés. Most students have much more to offer than they realize.
- Use active language: Begin phrases with verbs to provide active, exciting descriptions of your experiences. Example: Salesperson, Smith Shoe Store, Portland, Maine. Assisted clients with selection of shoes, developed and promoted special marketing events, trained new employees and monitored cash.
- Be consistent: Use the same pattern of spacing, order of information that is presented, boldface type and underlining throughout the different sections of your resumé.
- Present information in reverse chronological order: List education and work experiences within each category by starting with the most recent item ﬁrst.
- Check for grammar: Make a good ﬁrst impression with a potential em- ployer by avoiding misspellings and poorly constructed sentences.
- Ensure that it is neat and visually appealing: Choose high-quality paper in white, off-white or other conservative colors.
The following categories can be used as guidelines to assist you in organizing a resumé. In constructing a rough draft, do not be concerned with length. Remember, categories may be omitted or added in later revisions. There are many different ways to organize a resumé. Be creative, but also be honest. The following are descriptions of the basic categories of the standard resumé:
* Name, Address, Telephone and Email: Present yourself with the name you use in your personal and business life (nicknames should be avoided). If you have a campus address that does not apply during vacations or after graduation, you should include both a college and permanent address. Use your parents’ home address, a post ofﬁce box, or someone who will know where to contact you at all times. Also include phone numbers with area codes and your email address. Because your resume may remain on ﬁle after you graduate, make sure to use a permanent email address (such as Yahoo or Hotmail).
* Objective: The objective is one of the most important parts of a resumé. It informs potential employers that you have a speciﬁc goal, conveys your work preference(s), and serves as a focal point from which to review your resumé. The objective should be brief, clearly stated, and consistent with the accomplishments and skills that are outlined in your resumé. If you are considering more than one professional goal, you should consider developing more than one resumé, each presenting a different objective. Consider the following examples:
- A position as an elementary school teacher allowing me to provide children with an environment in which they can learn and grow.
- An entry-level accounting position that will allow me to apply my skills and further develop my knowledge of this ﬁeld.
- A position in a laboratory setting requiring high motivation, organization and communication skills and a strong work ethic.
* Education: This category is particularly important if you have not had a great deal of work experience. List your most recent educational experience ﬁrst. Include your degree (A.S., B.S., B.A., etc.), major, institution(s) attended, date of graduation, minors or concentrations and any special workshops, seminars, related coursework or senior projects. Also include your G.P.A. if it is a 3.0 or higher (either overall G.P.A. or G.P.A. in major).
* Computer Skills: If using computers is a necessary skill for the job you are seeking, be sure to include this section.
Software: Microsoft Ofﬁce: Word, Access, Excel, PowerPoint.
Hardware: PC, Mac, UNIX.
* Activities, Honors and Leadership: Extracurricular experiences can be important to highlight on a resumé, particularly if you held a leadership position or served on a special committee. If you list such activities, be sure to illustrate how your past responsibilities correspond to the skills that the current job requires.
Consider the talents that the following activities require:
- Athletics: teamwork and time management skills
- Performing or ﬁne arts: communication skills, creativity, and the ability to meet deadlines
- Volunteer work: leadership skills and the ability to work effectively with people (e.g., children, the elderly)
If you are having trouble describing your accomplishments, think about what a best friend or family member would say about you. Don’t be ashamed to highlight your honors and accomplishments that you have worked hard to earn.
* Work Experience: Many students have limited paid work experiences but have been involved in volunteer, internship, practicum or student teaching experiences. Remember, a potential employer is most interested in the skills and strengths that you could bring into a new job. In this section, be sure to include all signiﬁcant work experiences in reverse chronological order.
Include the following details about each experience: the title of your position, name of the organization, location of work (town, state), and dates (e.g., Summer 2011; 2011-2012 academic year).
Describe your work responsibilities with an emphasis on achievements rather than past duties. Use action words to communicate your skills (see action word list on the next page). List the most important and related responsibilities ﬁrst. Be brief with the irrelevant experiences or omit them.
* Interests: This is sometimes used to evaluate your suitability to a geographic area or to understand your “personality type.” Include this section if you have available space. Include social or civic activities, health and ﬁtness or sports activities, or hobbies that indicate how you spend your leisure time.
* References: Be sure to ask individuals if they would be willing to be a reference for you prior to mentioning their names to prospective employers. Names of individuals are not usually listed on the resumé (unless there is space available at the end). Prepare a typed list of three references to provide at the interview. This list should include each individual’s name, title, employer, address, business and home telephone numbers, and e-mail address.
Many students distinguish paid from unpaid work; however, there is nothing wrong with listing various types of experience under one heading. For example, if you’re applying for a position as a Web designer, you may include both a paid Web design internship and a signiﬁcant design project you completed for a course under your “Work Experience” heading.
You may also include extracurricular activities and volunteer work under your experience heading, but be certain to distinguish between those that are and are not relevant to your job search. For example, if you’re a member of the ﬁlm club, but only attend the free monthly movies, you should conﬁne your description to an “Activities” or “Interests” section.
Consider dividing your experiences into “Related Experience” and “Other Experience,” or be more speciﬁc in your divisions. For example, if you have a signiﬁcant number of relevant academic experiences, you may want to include a section titled “Related Academic Experience.” In this way, you can call more attention to your relevant skills by putting them in categories closer to the top of the resumé. Whatever mix of experience you have, be ﬂexible and creative, and don’t be afraid to highlight your most impressive qualiﬁcations.
You may want to develop your own categories to highlight your special relevant experiences and skills. Here are examples of additional categories that you might want to consider using:
|Student Teaching Experience||Related Experience|
|Technical Skills||Related Courses|
|Qualifications Summary||Internship Experience|
|Volunteer Activities||Workshops & Conferences|
|Professional Affiliations||Military Experience|
|Language Proficiencies||Additional Information|
In place of “Related Experience” you might wish to indicate your speciﬁc area of study or concentration in the category heading (e.g., Business Experience, Engineering Experience, Human Services Experience). You may also want to add that work was performed to earn a certain percent of college expenses. For example: Earned 75% of college expenses through the following part-time jobs.
Resumés should be tailored to the particular job you want, with speciﬁc information emphasized in order to grab an employer’s attention. As you are customizing your resumé for different positions, keep the following tips in mind:
- Use the job description as a guide: The information listed in the bullet points under each job heading should highlight skills that are related to the requirements of the job for which you are applying. If the job description is vague, ﬁnd out what skills the company is looking for or talk to someone in a comparable position at a similar company.
- Find appropriate keywords: Nowadays, a computer is more likely to scan your resumé than a human. Many companies and recruiters are using computer-based automated tracking systems to quickly sort hundreds of resumés. Loading a resumé with relevant keywords increases an applicant’s chances of obtaining an interview. Keywords are generally nouns that use the “jargon” and acronyms related to a speciﬁc ﬁeld. For example: Java, records management, MBA.
- Other tips for scannable resumés: Keep in mind that words in special type can change when scanned with optical character recognition software. Try to ﬁnd out in advance if the company to which you are applying uses such software. If it does, print your resumé on white paper and do not italicize, underline, or boldface. Avoid ornate fonts and fonts in which the characters touch. Standard serif and sans serif fonts in 11 to 12 point size work best. Use vertical and horizontal lines sparingly. Also, avoid graphics and shading.
To prepare an email resumé that will help you to secure an interview, follow these steps:
- Considering ﬁle format: In general, you should prepare your resume as a Word document or other rich text ﬁle. Such ﬁles are the default output from common word-processing software, and are preferred primarily due to their professional appearance and customizability (e.g., bullets, italics, formatting lines). Thus, .doc and .rtf ﬁles are ideal if you will be printing a hard copy of your resume to hand directly to an employer. However, there are instances in which you require a simply formatted resume for e-mail transmission – if this is the case, consider removing bullets, italics and special characters, and save your resume as a plain text (e.g., .txt) document. Finally, you may be asked to convert your resume to a PDF ﬁle. Look over your newly created PDF ﬁle carefully as errors in formatting often occur during conversion. If you encounter problems converting .doc or .rtf ﬁles to PDF format, ﬁrst convert your resume to plain text ﬁle, then create a PDF from that ﬁle.
- Generally speaking, do not submit a resumé as an attachment: Although it is easy to attach your resume, many experts recommend including the text of the resume in the body of your e-mail instead of using an attachment. Prospective employers often do not open attached resumes because they can be infected with a virus. If you are applying for a job online and the company offers the option of uploading a hard copy of your resume with your application, then do so. Or, if an employer requests that you send a resume as an e-mail attachment, they will probably specify which formats are acceptable.
- Limit each line in your resumé to 65 characters: Most e-mail programs wrap text around at 65 characters. That means any line longer than 65 characters is going to be cut off and dropped down to the next line.
- Take your e-resumé out for a test-drive: Email your resume to yourself, because you’d much rather it be you who catches technical problems and errors than a recruiter. Make sure the text looks right on the screen and prints out correctly. It is good practice to send a copy of this email message to a friend who is using a different email program, before transferring the text ﬁle to a prospective employer for the ﬁrst time.
- Include a cover letter: Cover letters that accompany e-resumés should be brief and concise. Be sure to indicate which position you are applying for, what your qualiﬁcations are, and what you can contribute to the company. Insert your cover letter above the resume in the body of an e-mail.
- Subject of the email message: Use the advertised job title as the subject of your email message, citing any relevant job numbers as noted in the job posting. This makes it easy to route your resume to the appropriate person.
- Make a backup: Be sure to save a copy of your resume on a disk, a thumb drive, and on your hard drive. You also want to be sure to bring a paper copy of your resume with you to all interviews in case the employer has misplaced the copy that you sent electronically.